94 research outputs found

    Detection of nitric oxide pollution

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    Studies of absorption spectra enhancement of certain atomic and molecular species inserter in dye-laser cavities have indicated that nitric oxide can be determined at low concentrations. Absorption coefficient of small amounts of nitric oxide in intra-laser-cavity absorption cell containing helium is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude

    Rydberg-Klein-Rees 1-Sigma-positive potential curve turning points for the isotopes of carbon monoxide

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    First order RKR turning points were computed for (C-12)O16, (C-12)O17, (C-13)O16, (C-12)O18, and (C-13)O18 for vibrational levels up to v = 40. These turning points should be useful in the numerical computation of matrix elements of powers of the internuclear separation

    Recent high resolution laboratory determinations of line broadening and intensity parameters: PH3, CH3D, and CO2

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    Recent unpublished laboratory work on rovibrational line strengths and broadening coefficients which is of interest in the study of planetary atmospheres was reviewed. The molecules discussed are PH3, CH3D and CO2

    Experimental Determination of the 1 Sigma(+) State Electric-Dipole-Moment Function of Carbon Monoxide up to a Large Internuclear Separation

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    Experimental intensity information is combined with numerically obtained vibrational wave functions in a nonlinear least squares fitting procedure to obtain the ground electronic state electric-dipole-moment function of carbon monoxide valid in the range of nuclear oscillation (0.87 to 1.01 A) of about the V = 38th vibrational level. Mechanical anharmonicity intensity factors, H, are computed from this function for delta V + = 1, 2, 3, with or = to 38

    Quantitative infrared spectroscopy of minor constituents of the Earth's atmosphere

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    We obtain quantitative laboratory spectroscopic measurements of molecular constituents which are of importance in understanding the health of the Earth's atmosphere, and, in particular, emphasize those species which are important for understanding stratospheric kinetics or are used for long term monitoring of the stratosphere. Our measurements provide: (1) line and band intensity values which are needed to establish limits of detectability for as yet unobserved species and to quantify the abundance of those species which are observed; (2) line-positions, -half widths and pressure induced shifts are all needed for remote sensing techniques, and (3) data on the above basic molecular parameters at temperatures and pressures appropriate for the real atmosphere

    IL-21 signaling is essential for optimal host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

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    IL-21 is produced predominantly by activated CD4(+) T cells and has pleiotropic effects on immunity via the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R), a member of the common gamma chain (gamma(c)) cytokine receptor family. We show that IL-21 signaling plays a crucial role in T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by augmenting CD8(+) T cell priming, promoting T cell accumulation in the lungs, and enhancing T cell cytokine production. In the absence of IL-21 signaling, more CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in chronically infected mice express the T cell inhibitory molecules PD-1 and TIM-3. We correlate these immune alterations with increased susceptibility of IL-21R(-/-) mice, which have increased lung bacterial burden and earlier mortality compared to WT mice. Finally, to causally link the immune defects with host susceptibility, we use an adoptive transfer model to show that IL-21R(-/-) T cells transfer less protection than WT T cells. These results prove that IL-21 signaling has an intrinsic role in promoting the protective capacity of T cells. Thus, the net effect of IL-21 signaling is to enhance host resistance to M. tuberculosis. These data position IL-21 as a candidate biomarker of resistance to tuberculosis.This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants R21 AI100766, R01 AI106725, and P01 AI073748

    IL-33 Is Produced by Mast Cells and Regulates IgE-Dependent Inflammation

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    Background: IL-33 is a recently characterized IL-1 family cytokine and found to be expressed in inflammatory diseases, including severe asthma and inflammatory bowl disease. Recombinant IL-33 has been shown to enhance Th2-associated immune responses and potently increase mast cell proliferation and cytokine production. While IL-33 is constitutively expressed in endothelial and epithelial cells, where it may function as a transcriptional regulator, cellular sources of IL-33 and its role in inflammation remain unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here, we identify mast cells as IL-33 producing cells. IgE/antigen activation of bone marrow-derived mast cells or a murine mast cell line (MC/9) significantly enhanced IL-33. Conversely, recombinant IL-33 directly activated mast cells to produce several cytokines including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 but not IL-33. We show that expression of IL-33 in response to IgE-activation required calcium and that ionomycin was sufficient to induce IL-33. In vivo, peritoneal mast cells expressed IL-33 and IL-33 levels were significantly lower within the skin of mast cell deficient mice, compared to littermate controls. Local activation of mast cells promotes edema, followed by the recruitment of inflammatory cells. We demonstrate using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, a mast cell-dependent model, that deficiency in ST2 or antibody blockage of ST2 or IL-33 ablated the late phase inflammatory response but that the immediate phase response was unaffected. IL-33 levels in the skin were significantly elevated only during the late phase

    Human and murine clonal CD8+ T cell expansions arise during tuberculosis because of TCR selection

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    The immune system can recognize virtually any antigen, yet T cell responses against several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are restricted to a limited number of immunodominant epitopes. The host factors that affect immunodominance are incompletely understood. Whether immunodominant epitopes elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses or instead act as decoys to subvert immunity and allow pathogens to establish chronic infection is unknown. Here we show that anatomically distinct human granulomas contain clonally expanded CD8+ T cells with overlapping T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. Similarly, the murine CD8+ T cell response against M. tuberculosis is dominated by TB10.44-11-specific T cells with extreme TCRß bias. Using a retro genic model of TB10.44-11-specific CD8+ Tcells, we show that TCR dominance can arise because of competition between clonotypes driven by differences in affinity. Finally, we demonstrate that TB10.4-specific CD8+ T cells mediate protection against tuberculosis, which requires interferon-? production and TAP1-dependent antigen presentation in vivo. Our study of how immunodominance, biased TCR repertoires, and protection are inter-related, provides a new way to measure the quality of T cell immunity, which if applied to vaccine evaluation, could enhance our understanding of how to elicit protective T cell immunity.This work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology individual fellowship (CNA) www.fct.pt, a National Institutes of Health Grant R01 AI106725 (SMB) www.nih.gov, and a Center for AIDS Research Grant P30 AI 060354 (SMB) www.nih.gov. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

    R5 Clade C SHIV Strains with Tier 1 or 2 Neutralization Sensitivity: Tools to Dissect Env Evolution and to Develop AIDS Vaccines in Primate Models

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    Background: HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C) predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1) HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a less sensitive (tier 2) phenotype are not neutralized. Thus, both tier 1 and 2 viruses are needed for vaccine discovery in nonhuman primate models. Methodology/Principal Findings: We constructed a tier 1 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipEL, by inserting an “early,” recently transmitted HIV-C env into the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone [1] encoding a “late” form of the same env, which had evolved in a SHIV-infected rhesus monkey (RM) with AIDS. SHIV-1157ipEL was rapidly passaged to yield SHIV-1157ipEL-p, which remained exclusively R5-tropic and had a tier 1 phenotype, in contrast to “late” SHIV-1157ipd3N4 (tier 2). After 5 weekly low-dose intrarectal exposures, SHIV-1157ipEL-p systemically infected 16 out of 17 RM with high peak viral RNA loads and depleted gut CD4+^+ T cells. SHIV-1157ipEL-p and SHIV-1157ipd3N4 env genes diverge mostly in V1/V2. Molecular modeling revealed a possible mechanism for the increased neutralization resistance of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 Env: V2 loops hindering access to the CD4 binding site, shown experimentally with nAb b12. Similar mutations have been linked to decreased neutralization sensitivity in HIV-C strains isolated from humans over time, indicating parallel HIV-C Env evolution in humans and RM. Conclusions/Significance: SHIV-1157ipEL-p, the first tier 1 R5 clade C SHIV, and SHIV-1157ipd3N4, its tier 2 counterpart, represent biologically relevant tools for anti-HIV-C vaccine development in primates

    Protection of Stem Cell-Derived Lymphocytes in a Primate AIDS Gene Therapy Model after In Vivo Selection

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    Background: There is currently no effective AIDS vaccine, emphasizing the importance of developing alternative therapies. Recently, a patient was successfully transplanted with allogeneic, naturally resistant CCR5-negative (CCR5 delta 32) cells, setting the stage for transplantation of naturally resistant, or genetically modified stem cells as a viable therapy for AIDS. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy using vectors that express various anti-HIV transgenes has also been attempted in clinical trials, but inefficient gene transfer in these studies has severely limited the potential of this approach. Here we evaluated HSC gene transfer of an anti-HIV vector in the pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) model, which closely models human transplantation. Methods and Findings: We used lentiviral vectors that inhibited both HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/HIV-1 (SHIV) chimera virus infection, and also expressed a P140K mutant methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) transgene to select gene-modified cells by adding chemotherapy drugs. Following transplantation and MGMT-mediated selection we demonstrated transgene expression in over 7% of stem-cell derived lymphocytes. The high marking levels allowed us to demonstrate protection from SHIV in lymphocytes derived from gene-modified macaque long-term repopulating cells that expressed an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. We observed a statistically significant 4-fold increase of gene-modified cells after challenge of lymphocytes from one macaque that received stem cells transduced with an anti-HIV vector (p<0.02, Student's t-test), but not in lymphocytes from a macaque that received a control vector. We also established a competitive repopulation assay in a second macaque for preclinical testing of promising anti-HIV vectors. The vectors we used were HIV-based and thus efficiently transduce human cells, and the transgenes we used target HIV-1 genes that are also in SHIV, so our findings can be rapidly translated to the clinic. Conclusions: Here we demonstrate the ability to select protected HSC-derived lymphocytes in vivo in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate model of HIV/SHIV infection. This approach can now be evaluated in human clinical trials in AIDS lymphoma patients. In this patient setting, chemotherapy would not only kill malignant cells, but would also increase the number of MGMTP140K-expressing HIV-resistant cells. This approach should allow for high levels of HIV-protected cells in AIDS patients to evaluate AIDS gene therapy
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