1,555 research outputs found

    A new infrared band in the Interstellar and Circumstellar Clouds: C_4 or C_4H?

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    We report on the detection with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) of a molecular band at 57.5 microns (174 cm^{-1}) in carbon-rich evolved stars and in Sgr B2. Taking into account the chemistry of these objects the most likelihood carrier is a carbon chain. We tentatively assign the band to the nu_5 bending mode of C_4 for which a wavenumber of 170-172.4 cm^{-1} has been derived in matrix experiments (Withey et al. 1991). An alternate carrier might be C_4H, although the frequency of its lowest energy vibrational bending mode, nu_7, is poorly known (130-226 cm^{-1}). If the carrier is C_4, the derived maximum abundance is nearly similar to that found for C_3 in the interstellar and circumstellar media by Cernicharo, Goicoechea & Caux (2000). Hence, tetra-atomic carbon could be one of the most abundant carbon chain molecules in these media.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure, accepted in ApJ Letter

    The abundances of polyacetylenes towards CRL618

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    We present a mid-infrared high spectral resolution spectrum of CRL618 in the frequency ranges 778-784 and 1227-1249 cm^-1 (8.01-8.15 and 12.75-12.85 um) taken with the Texas Echelon-cross-Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) and the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We have identified more than 170 ro-vibrational lines arising from C2H2, HCN, C4H2, and C6H2. We have found no unmistakable trace of C8H2. The line profiles display a complex structure suggesting the presence of polyacetylenes in several components of the circumstellar envelope (CSE). We derive total column densities of 2.5 10^17, 3.1 10^17, 2.1 10^17, 9.3 10^16 cm^-2, and < 5 10^16 cm^-2 for HCN, C2H2, C4H2, C6H2, and C8H2, respectively. The observations indicate that both the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the innermost CSE depend on the molecule, varying from 100 to 350 K for the rotational temperatures and 100 to 500 K for the vibrational temperatures. Our results support a chemistry in the innermost CSE based on radical-neutral reactions triggered by the intense UV radiation field.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, 1 table; accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journa

    Observational evidence of the formation of cyanopolyynes in CRL618 through the polimerization of HCN

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    The abundance ratio of consecutive members of the cyanopolyynes family has been explored in CRL618 using data acquired in a complete line survey covering the frequency range 81-356 GHz. The Jup range explored for the different molecules is the following: 1 to 4 for HCN and HNC, 9 to 39 for HC3N, 31 to 133 for HC5N, and 72 to 85 for HC7N (not detected beyond Jup=85). The lowest vibrationally excited state of HC7N (nu_15 at 62 cm^-1) has been tentatively detected. Data analysis has been performed by extending our previous geometrical and radiative transfer model of the slowly expanding envelope (SEE) surrounding the compact central continuum source of CRL 618, that was established from the study of rotational lines in several vibrationally excited states of HC_3N. The new lines analyzed here require to model the high velocity wind (HVW) component and the colder circumstellar gas, remnant of the AGB phase of CRL618. The derived HC3N/HC5N and HC5N/HC7N abundance ratios from this set of uniformly calibrated lines are between 3 and 6 in the different regions, similar to standard values in the CSM and ISM, and consistent with previous estimates obtained from ISO observations and chemical models. However, the abundance ratios of HC3N, HC5N and HC7N with respect to HCN are at least two orders of magnitude larger than those typical for AGB C-rich stars, such as IRC+10216. This fact indicates that, in the short transition toward the Planetary Nebula phase, HCN is quickly reprocessed into longer cyanopolyyne chains. A similar behavior was previously found in this object for the polyacetylenic chains (C(2n)H2).Comment: 8 figures, accepted in ApJ main journa

    Molecular Carbon Chains and Rings in TMC-1

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    We present mapping results in several rotational transitions of HC3N, C6H, both cyclic and linear C3H2 and C3H, towards the cyanopolyyne peak of the filamentary dense cloud TMC-1 using the IRAM 30m and MPIfR 100m telescopes. The spatial distribution of the cumulene carbon chain propadienylidene H2C3 (hereafter l-C3H2) is found to deviate significantly from the distributions of the cyclic isomer c-C3H2, HC3N, and C6H which in turn look very similar. The cyclic over linear abundance ratio of C3H2 increases by a factor of 3 across the filament, with a value of 28 at the cyanopolyyne peak. This abundance ratio is an order of magnitude larger than the range (3 to 5) we observed in the diffuse interstellar medium. The cyclic over linear abundance ratio of C3H also varies by ~2.5 in TMC-1, reaching a maximum value (13) close to the cyanopolyyne peak. These behaviors might be related to competitive processes between ion-neutral and neutral-neutral reactions for cyclic and linear species.Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal, part I. 24 pages, including 4 tables, 7 figures, and figure caption

    On the influence of collisional rate coefficients on the water vapour excitation

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    Water is a key molecule in many astrophysical studies. Its high dipole moment makes this molecule to be subthermally populated under the typical conditions of most astrophysical objects. This motivated the calculation of various sets of collisional rate coefficients (CRC) for H2_2O (with He or H2_2) which are necessary to model its rotational excitation and line emission. We performed accurate non--local non--LTE radiative transfer calculations using different sets of CRC in order to predict the line intensities from transitions that involve the lowest energy levels of H2_2O (E << 900 K). The results obtained from the different CRC sets are then compared using line intensity ratio statistics. For the whole range of physical conditions considered in this work, we obtain that the intensities based on the quantum and QCT CRC are in good agreement. However, at relatively low H2_2 volume density (nn(H2_2) << 107^7 cm−3^{-3}) and low water abundance (χ\chi(H2_2O) << 10−6^{-6}), these physical conditions being relevant to describe most molecular clouds, we find differences in the predicted line intensities of up to a factor of ∼\sim 3 for the bulk of the lines. Most of the recent studies interpreting early Herschel Space Observatory spectra used the QCT CRC. Our results show that although the global conclusions from those studies will not be drastically changed, each case has to be considered individually, since depending on the physical conditions, the use of the QCT CRC may lead to a mis--estimate of the water vapour abundance of up to a factor of ∼\sim 3

    Spectroscopic parameters for silacyclopropynylidene, SiC2_2, from extensive astronomical observations toward CW Leo (IRC +10216) with the Herschel satellite

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    A molecular line survey has been carried out toward the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star CW Leo employing the HIFI instrument on board of the Herschel satellite. Numerous features from 480 GHz to beyond 1100 GHz could be assigned unambiguously to the fairly floppy SiC2_2 molecule. However, predictions from laboratory data exhibited large deviations from the observed frequencies even after some lower frequency data from this survey were incorporated into a fit. Therefore, we present a combined fit of all available laboratory data together with data from radio-astronomical observations.Comment: 7 pages, 1 figure, J. Mol. Spectrosc., appeared; CDMS links corrected (version 2; current version: 3; may be updated later this year

    Discovery of interstellar isocyanogen (CNCN): further evidence that dicyanopolyynes are abundant in space

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    It is thought that dicyanopolyynes could be potentially abundant interstellar molecules, although their lack of dipole moment makes it impossible to detect them through radioastronomical techniques. Recently, the simplest member of this chemical family, cyanogen (NCCN), was indirectly probed for the first time in interstellar space through the detection of its protonated form toward the dense clouds L483 and TMC-1. Here we present a second firm evidence of the presence of NCCN in interstellar space, namely the detection of the metastable and polar isomer isocyanogen (CNCN). This species has been identified in L483 and tentatively in TMC-1 by observing various rotational transitions in the 3 mm band with the IRAM 30m telescope. We derive beam-averaged column densities for CNCN of 1.6e12 cm-2 in L483 and 9e11 cm-2 in TMC-1, which imply fractional abundances relative to H2 in the range (5-9)e-11. While the presence of NCCN in interstellar clouds seems out of doubt owing to the detection of NCCNH+ and CNCN, putting tight constraints on its abundance is still hampered by the poor knowledge of the chemistry that links NCCN with NCCNH+ and especially with CNCN. We estimate that NCCN could be fairly abundant, in the range 1e-9 - 1e-7 relative to H2, as other abundant nitriles like HCN and HC3N.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    Far-IR spectroscopy towards Sagittarius B2

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    The far-IR is a unique wavelength range for Astrophysical studies, however, it can only be fully sampled from space platforms. The fundamental rotational transitions of light molecules, the high-J transitions of polyatomic species, the bending modes of non-polar molecules, several atomic fine structure lines and many frequencies blocked by the earth atmosphere can only be observed between 50 and 200 um (6.0 and 1.5 THz). In this contribution we present the far-IR spectrum of Sgr B2 at a resolution of ~35 km s^{-1}, the ``Rosetta stone'' of ISO's far-IR spectra. We also discuss the perspectives of the far-IR Astronomy in the context of the future telescopes under development.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. To appear in the Proceedings of the 4th Cologne-Bonn-Zermatt-Symposium "The Dense Interstellar Medium in Galaxies" eds. S. Pfalzner, C. Kramer, C. Straubmeier, & A. Heithausen (Springer: Berlin
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