25 research outputs found

    Incidence of healthcare-associated infections in a neonatal intensive care unit before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. A four-year retrospective cohort study

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    The COVID-19 pandemic may have had an impact on healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of HAIs in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Umberto I teaching hospital in Rome before and during the pandemic. All infants admitted from 1 March 2018 to 28 February 2022 were included and were divided into four groups according to their admission date: two groups before the pandemic (periods I and II) and two during the pandemic (periods III and IV). The association between risk factors and time-to-first event was analyzed using a multivariable Cox regression model. Over the four-year period, a total of 503 infants were included, and 36 infections were recorded. After adjusting for mechanical ventilation, birth weight, sex, type of delivery, respiratory distress syndrome, and previous use of netilmicin and fluconazole, the multivariable analysis confirmed that being hospitalized during the pandemic periods (III and IV) was the main risk factor for HAI acquisition. Furthermore, a change in the etiology of these infections was observed across the study periods. Together, these findings suggest that patient management during the pandemic was suboptimal and that HAI surveillance protocols should be implemented in the NICU setting promptly

    Molecular characterization of A. baumanni isolates causing co-infections in SARS-COV-2 patients

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    Background Respiratory viral infections, such as COVID-19, predispose patients to co-infections leading to increased morbidity and mortality. A. baumannii poses as a serious threat to hospital facilities because of its ability to persist in the environment and acquire multi-drug resistance. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of A. baumannii cross-infection and identify any gene clonality between isolates in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Methods Bacterial isolates of A. baumannii found in patients with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to the main Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Umberto I Teaching Hospital of Rome were collected between March 2020 and February 2021. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field electrophoresis to analyse their homology relationships. Results Overall, 196 SARS-CoV-2 patients were admitted to the ICU. They were mainly male (N = 138) and aged 63 years on average. Of these, 122 died, and 74 were discharged. A total of 157 strains of A. baumannii were isolated from 74 patients (38%), who had a higher mean hospital stay than patients in whom the bacterial strain had not been isolated (24.6 vs. 12.2 days). The genotypic analysis of 120 isolates revealed two main patterns (A and F) and a few subtypes, especially A8 (43%), A4 (29%), and A11 (10%). Clone A8 was found mainly between October 2020 and February 2021, clone A4 in April-December 2020 and January-February 2021, and A11 in December 2020 and January 2021. The strains were susceptible to colistin only, were isolated mostly from tracheobronchial aspirates (41%) or rectal swabs (35%) and accounted for 56 healthcare-associated infections (33% of which sustained by A4, 38% by A8, and 9% by A11). Conclusions The isolation of A. baumannii from patients with COVID-19 highlighted the importance of monitoring co-infections caused by this pathogen, which frequently shows a multi-drug resistant profile that may lengthen the hospital stay. It is essential to implement preventive measures to contain these infections

    COVID-19 and coagulative axis: Review of emerging aspects in a novel disease

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    Latest evidences from literature suggest that SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) is commonly complicated with coagulopathy and that disseminated intravascular coagulation is present in the majority of deceased patients. Particularly, conventional coagulation parameters appear to be significantly altered in patients with poor prognosis. A wide-ranging cross- talk between coagulative haemoslasis and inflammation, as well as the activation of coagulation cascade during viral infections, are well established. Another important evidence which may explain coagulation disorders in COVID-19 is the increase of thrombus formation under conditions of hypoxia. Despite the exact pathophysiological mechanism of coronavirus-induced thromboembolism needs to be further investigated, this finding suggests that it is good practice to assess the risk of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients to improve the clinical management in terms of anticoagulation therapy. Anticoagulants, mainly low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), should be tailored in patients meeting sepsis induced coagulopathy (SIC) criteria or with markedly elevated D-dimer. In this context, further studies are needed to optimise the decision making in therapeutic approach

    Elderly with COPD: Comoborbitidies and systemic consequences

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    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a complex respiratory disorder characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms due to chronic airflow limitation caused by exposure to noxious particles/gases with an increased inflammatory response of the airways. COPD is common in older people, with an estimated prevalence of 10% in the US population aged > 75 years and is often accompanied by other concomitant chronic conditions that negatively impact prognosis and health status. The aim of this paper is to highlight the relationship between COPD and other comorbidities in elderly population. We focus our attention on the relationship existing between COPD and cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, malnutrition/sarcopenia and osteoporosis with particular attention to adipokines, considering that adipose tissue plays a relevant role in the cross-talk between organs