4,333 research outputs found

    Surface morphological evolutions on single crystal films by strong anisotropic drift-diffusion under the capillary and electromigration forces

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    The morphological evolution of voids at the unpassivated surfaces and the sidewalls of the single crystal metallic films are investigated via computer simulations by using the novel mathematical model developed by Ogurtani relying on the fundamental postulates of irreversible thermodynamics. The effects of the drift-diffusion anisotropy on the development of the surface morphological scenarios are fully explored under the action of the electromigration (EM) and capillary forces (CF), utilizing numerous combination of the surface textures and the directions of the applied electric field. The interconnect failure time due to the EM induced wedge shape internal voids and the incubation time of the oscillatory surface waves, under the severe instability regimes, are deduced by the novel renormalization procedures applied on the outputs of the computer simulation experiments.Comment: 41 pages, 18 figures. related simulation movies utilizing numerous combination of the surface texture, see http://www.csl.mete.metu.edu.tr/aytac/thesis/movies/index.ht

    Reverse polarized inductive coupling to transmit and receive radiofrequency coil arrays

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.In this study, the reverse polarization method is implemented using transmit and receive arrays to improve the visibility of the interventional devices. Linearly polarized signal sourcesinductively and receptively coupled radiofrequency coilsare used in the experimental setups to demonstrate the ability of the method to separate these sources from a forward polarized anatomy signal. Two different applications of the reverse polarization method are presented here: (a) catheter tracking and (b) fiducial marker visualization, in both of which transmit and receive arrays are used. The performance of the reverse polarization method was further tested with phantom and volunteer studies, and the results proved the feasibility of this method with transmit and receive arrays. Magn Reson Med, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, In

    Genotypic variation in growth and physiological responses of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings to flooding

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    Tolerance to flooding stress in root regions of some common bean genotypes (Beyaz Fasulye, Boncuk Sırık, Kökez, Oturak and Sırık) was investigated in terms of morphological and physiological. Plants were grown in a plant growth chamber at 26/18°C (day/night) temperature with RH 70% and 450 m-2 s-1 light intensity. Seedlings were exposed to flooding stress for 3 days when the plants had developed 3 to 4 true leaves. The results obtained showed that root dry weight and leaf area were reduced significantly by flooding treatment. The changes in leaf area showed differences between genotypes. It was found that flooding treatment did not affect the leaf relative water content (RWC) value. Flooding treatment decreased total chlorophyll content significantly. It was observed that some increases and decreases in the total sugar and lipid peroxidation (MDA) contents in root and leaf parts depend on genotypes and treatment. Beside that cell membrane injury and influence of flooding for each genotype were determined measuring the electrical conductivity. It was determined that the tolerance to flooding of five evaluated common bean genotypes, were change depending on root and leaf part. The results also showed that different genotypes responded differently to excess water in the soil, which could be linked to variation in growth and physiological responses. According to the evaluation, these results possibly suggest that ‘Boncuk Sırık’ ‘was relatively tolerant genotype, whereas ‘Sırık’ and ‘Kökez’ were determined as more sensitive genotypes.Key words: Phaseolus vulgaris L., common bean, excess water stress, flooding, lipid peroxidation, membrane injury, waterlogging

    The Hopf algebra structure of the Z3_3-graded quantum supergroup GLq,j(11)_{q,j}(1|1)

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    In this work, we give some features of the Z3_3-graded quantum supergroup

    Regression based polynomial chaos expansion for crop phenology estimation coupled with polsar imagery

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    Crop phenology monitoring using Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) data is gaining popularity within the remote sensing community due to SAR’s all weather and large coverage imaging capability. This paper introduces a polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) based regression algorithm to retrieve BBCH scale of crops, which identifies the phenology of crops in a standardized system. The impact and applicability of the proposed methodology is successfully illustrated using the TerraSAR-X dual-pol imagery that was acquired over the cultivation period of paddy-rice fields located in Turkey. To assess the applicability of the methodology, root mean square and correlation analysis were performed under different amount of training data and number of inputs