3,469 research outputs found

    Turbulence-induced bubble nucleation in hydrothermal fluids beneath Yellowstone Lake

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    © The Author(s), 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Caudron, C., Vandemeulebrouck, J., & Sohn, R. A. Turbulence-induced bubble nucleation in hydrothermal fluids beneath Yellowstone Lake. Communications Earth & Environment, 3(1), (2022): 103, https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-022-00417-6.Volcanic systems generate large amounts of gas, and understanding gas fluxes is a fundamental aspect of volcanology and hazard mitigation. Volcanic gases can be challenging to measure, but acoustic methods hold promise in underwater environments because gas bubbles are powerful sound sources. We deployed an acoustic system to study the nature of gas discharge at a large (~30 MW) thermal field on the floor of Yellowstone Lake, which has experienced numerous hydrothermal explosions since the last glaciation (~13.4 ka). We find that small (<10 Pa) turbulent flow instabilities trigger the nucleation of CO2 bubbles in the saturated fluids. The observation of CO2 bubbles nucleating in hydrothermal fluids due to small pressure perturbations informs our understanding of hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone Lake, and demonstrates that acoustic data in underwater environments can provide insight into the stability of gas-rich systems, as well as gas fluxes.This research was supported by the National Science Foundation grant EAR-1516361 to R.A.S. All work in Yellowstone National Park was completed under an authorized research permit (YELL-2018-SCI-7018). We also acknowledge the IRGA 2021 Volquan project (funded by Université Grenoble Alpes) and Thomas Jefferson Fund Face Foundation (project TJF20_009 ‘Quantifying underwater volcano degassing using novel seismo-acoustic approaches’)

    Finescale topographical correlates of behavioural investment in offspring by female grey seals, Halichoerus grypus

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    Grey seals breed colonially on substrates ranging from ice to rocky or sandy beaches. Clear differences in seal behaviour patterns exist among such broad classes of breeding habitat. However, finer scale topographical variation is likely to influence individual behaviour with consequences for pupping success. We examined topographical influences on the behaviour of breeding female grey seals by quantifying topography at a subseal size resolution. Using submetre resolution digital terrain models of two sites within a rocky breeding colony, we compared site topography in relation to observed differences in female behaviour at these sites. Females at both sites preferred breeding close to water (standing pools or sea) and frequently commuted between their pups and water. Topographical models indicated that one site was more costly for seals in terms of their locations and movements within the site. This was due to a lack of low-elevation land adjacent to the main access points from the sea and the reduced availability of pools. Females at this site showed reduced pup attendance and an increase in energetically costly behaviours, whilst females at the lower-cost site spent more time interacting with their pups and resting. These topographically induced behavioural differences are likely to affect the quantity and quality of pup provisioning by mothers and influence individual pupping site selection. Less costly sites are likely to be colonized preferentially and by larger, older and more dominant females, potentially generating finescale spatial heterogeneity in female quality within the breeding colony

    Stocking activities for the Arctic charr in Lake Geneva: Genetic effects in space and time

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    Artificial stocking practices are widely used by resource managers worldwide, in order to sustain fish populations exploited by both recreational and commercial activities, but their benefits are controversial. Former practices involved exotic strains, although current programs rather consider artificial breeding of local fishes (supportive breeding). Understanding the complex genetic effects of these management strategies is an importan t challenge with economic and conservation implications, especially in the context of population declines. In this study, we focus on the declining Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) population from Lake Geneva (Switzerland and France), which has initially been restocked with allochtonous fishes in the early eighties, followed by supportive breeding. In this context, we conducted a genetic survey to document the evolution of the genetic diversity and structure throughout the last 50 years, before and after the initiation of hatchery supplementation, using contemporary and historical samples. We show that the introduction of exotic fishes was associated with a genetic bottleneck in the 1980–1990s, a break of Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), a reduction in genetic diversity, an increase in genetic structure among spawning sites, and a change in their genetic composition. Together with better environmental conditions, three decades of subsequent supportive breeding using local fishes allowed to re-establish HWE and the initial levels of genetic variation. However, current spawning sites have not fully recovered their original genetic composition and were extensively h omogenized across the lake. Our study demonstrates the drastic genetic consequ e nces of different restocking tactics in a comprehensive spatiotemporal framewo rk and suggests that genetic alteration by nonlocal stocking may be partly reversible through supportive breeding. We recommend that conservation-based programs consider local diversity and implement adequate protocols to limit the genetic homogenization of this Arctic charr population

    Random Field and Random Anisotropy Effects in Defect-Free Three-Dimensional XY Models

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    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to study a vortex-free XY ferromagnet with a random field or a random anisotropy on simple cubic lattices. In the random field case, which can be related to a charge-density wave pinned by random point defects, it is found that long-range order is destroyed even for weak randomness. In the random anisotropy case, which can be related to a randomly pinned spin-density wave, the long-range order is not destroyed and the correlation length is finite. In both cases there are many local minima of the free energy separated by high entropy barriers. Our results for the random field case are consistent with the existence of a Bragg glass phase of the type discussed by Emig, Bogner and Nattermann.Comment: 10 pages, including 2 figures, extensively revise

    Relative seismic velocity variations correlate with deformation at KÄ«lauea volcano, Hawai'i

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    Seismic noise interferometry allows the continuous and real-time measurement of relative seismic velocity through a volcanic edifice. Because seismic velocity is sensitive to the pressurization state of the system, this method is an exciting new monitoring tool at active volcanoes. Despite the potential of this tool, no studies have yet comprehensively compared velocity to other geophysical observables on a short-term time scale at a volcano over a significant length of time. We use volcanic tremor (~0.3 to 1.0 Hz) at Kīlauea as a passive source for interferometry to measure relative velocity changes with time. By cross-correlating the vertical component of day-long seismic records between ~230 station pairs, we extract coherent and temporally consistent coda wave signals with time lags of up to 120 s. Our resulting time series of relative velocity shows a remarkable correlation between relative velocity and the radial tilt record measured at Kīlauea summit, consistently correlating on a time scale of days to weeks for almost the entire study period (June 2011 to November 2015). As the summit continually deforms in deflation-inflation events, the velocity decreases and increases, respectively. Modeling of strain at Kīlauea suggests that, during inflation of the shallow magma reservoir (1 to 2 km below the surface), most of the edifice is dominated by compression—hence closing cracks and producing faster velocities—and vice versa. The excellent correlation between relative velocity and deformation in this study provides an opportunity to understand better the mechanisms causing seismic velocity changes at volcanoes, and therefore realize the potential of passive interferometry as a monitoring tool

    Microtubule depolymerization by the kinesin-8 motor Kip3p: a mathematical model

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    Proteins from the kinesin-8 family promote microtubule (MT) depolymerization, a process thought to be important for the control of microtubule length in living cells. In addition to this MT shortening activity, kinesin 8s are motors that show plus-end directed motility on MTs. Here we describe a simple model that incorporates directional motion and destabilization of the MT plus end by kinesin 8. Our model quantitatively reproduces the key features of length-vs-time traces for stabilized MTs in the presence of purified kinesin 8, including length-dependent depolymerization. Comparison of model predictions with experiments suggests that kinesin 8 depolymerizes processively, i.e., one motor can remove multiple tubulin dimers from a stabilized MT. Fluctuations in MT length as a function of time are related to depolymerization processivity. We have also determined the parameter regime in which the rate of MT depolymerization is length dependent: length-dependent depolymerization occurs only when MTs are sufficiently short; this crossover is sensitive to the bulk motor concentration.Comment: 34 pages, 11 figure

    Numerical analysis of the Venda Nova II powerhouse complex

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    In the North of Portugal a hydroelectric scheme called Venda Nova II was recently built in order to optimize the resources of the reservoirs created by Venda Nova and Salamonde dams. The scheme, almost fully composed by underground structures and built in a predominantly granite rock mass, include several tunnels with a total length of about 7.5km, inclined and vertical shafts with a total length of 750m and two caverns which compose the powerhouse complex. The complex consists of two caverns interconnected by two galleries at a dept of about 350m. For this complex, 2D and 3D numerical models were developed considering the different construction stages. The geomechanical parameters of the granite formation for the numerical models were obtained using GEOPAT. This software is a knowledge based system which allows obtaining geomechanical parameters for underground structures modelling in granite formations. The 2D model was developed in the Phases2 software while the 3D model in FLAC3D. In this paper results of these models are analysed. Some comparisons are carried out between the models results and the monitored data. The numerical results show in general a good agreement with the monitored ones.Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - projecto POCI/ECM/57495/2004 - Geotechnical Risk in Tunnels for High Speed Trains

    Numerical analysis of the venda nova II hydroelectrical complex main caverns and backanalysis of the geomechanical parameters

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    Neste trabalho é apresentado um modelo numérico 3D para as cavernas principais do complexo da Venda Nova II considerando as diferentes fases de escavação. Os parâmetros geomecânicos do maciço granítico, para os modelos, foram calculados utilizando o software GEOPAT. Este programa é um sistema baseado em conhecimento que permite obter os parâmetros geomecânicos para a modelação de obras subterrâneas em maciços graníticos. Os resultados do modelo são comparados com os deslocamentos observados por intermédio de extensómetros ao longo das várias fases construtivas. Nesta comparação são utilizadas diversas ferramentas estatísticas para a validação dos resultados obtidos. Finalmente, é realizada a retroanálise de parâmetros geomecânicos do maciço rochoso utilizando um algoritmo de optimização inovador. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a estimativa inicial dos parâmetros apresenta uma precisão bastante aceitável e que o algoritmo possui uma boa robustez e eficiência.In this work a 3D numerical model for the main caverns of the Venda Nova II complex which considers the different excavation stages is presented. The geomechanical parameters for the numerical models were computed using GEOPAT. This software is a knowledge based system which allows evaluating geomechanical parameters for the modelling of underground works built in granite rock masses. The results are compared with the observed displacements measured with extensometers along the different construction stages. In this comparison several statistical tools are used for the validation of the obtained results. Finally, the backanalysis of geomechanical parameters of the interested rock mass is performed using an innovative optimization algorithm. The results show that the initial evaluation of the parameters presents a very acceptable accuracy and that the algorithm posses good robustness and efficiency.Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - Projecto POCI/ECM/57495/2004, intitulado Geotechnical Risk in Tunnels for High Speed Trains.Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra (FCT-UC
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