17 research outputs found

    Childhood determinants of internal youth migration in Senegal

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    Background: Internal migration, mostly composed of young adults and the poor, constitutes the largest flow of people in developing countries. Few studies document the patterns and determinants of internal youth migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: This paper analyzes the socioeconomic determinants of the decisions of young adults to internally migrate in Senegal. We focus on whether their decisions to migrate are influenced by individual characteristics, as well as the circumstances in the households and communities where they grew up, and whether these factors are differentiated by gender. Methods: Using a unique migration household survey in Senegal, we estimate multinomial logit models to analyze the role of childhood socioeconomic determinants in decisions to later migrate to rural and urban areas. Results: We find that young people undertake mostly rural-to-rural and urban-to-urban migrations, and more than half of them are temporary migrants. We also find that the determinants are heterogeneous by gender and destination. The higher the fathers' education, the more (less) likely are their daughters to move to urban (rural) areas. Young individuals who spend their childhood in better-off households are more likely to move to urban areas. The presence of younger siblings during childhood increases the propensity of moving to rural areas. Access to primary schools from the childhood residence decreases the likelihood of migrating to urban areas for both men and women. Contribution: We contribute to the sparse literature on internal youth migration in developing countries by highlighting the role of family- and community-level characteristics during childhood in predicting later migration

    Convincing the Mummy-ji: improving mother-in-law approval of family planning in India

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    Mothers-in-law, especially those in South Asia, can exert significant influence over women, often even more so than women's husbands or other household members. Using data from rural India, we first show that mothers-in-law are more likely than husbands to (i) disapprove of women's family planning use and (ii) want women to have more children, particularly sons, than women themselves want. Next, using a field experiment, we show that providing women with vouchers for subsidized family planning services not only enabled them to initiate discussions about family planning with their mothers-in-law but also increased their mothers-in-law's approval of family planning.Accepted manuscrip

    Curse of the Mummy‚Äźji : the influence of mothers‚Äźin‚Äźlaw on women in India ‚Ć

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    Restrictive social norms and strategic constraints imposed by family members can limit women's access to and benefits from social networks, especially in patrilocal societies. We characterize young married women's social networks in rural India and analyze how inter‚Äźgenerational power dynamics within the household affect their network formation. Using primary data from Uttar Pradesh, we show that co‚Äźresidence with the mother‚Äźin‚Äźlaw is negatively correlated with her daughter‚Äźin‚Äźlaw's mobility and ability to form social connections outside the household, especially those related to health, fertility, and family planning. Our findings suggest that the mother‚Äźin‚Äźlaw's restrictive behavior is potentially driven by the misalignment of fertility preferences between the mother‚Äźin‚Äźlaw and the daughter‚Äźin‚Äźlaw. The lack of peers outside the household lowers the daughter‚Äźin‚Äźlaw's likelihood of visiting a family planning clinic and of using modern contraception. We find suggestive evidence that this is because outside peers (a) positively influence daughter‚Äźin‚Äźlaw's beliefs about the social acceptability of family planning and (b) enable the daughter‚Äźin‚Äźlaw to overcome mobility constraints by accompanying her to health clinics.Accepted manuscrip

    Informalidad y salarios relativos en Colombia, 1992-2004 - factores de oferta y demanda

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    Magíster en EconomíaMaestrí

    Informalidad y salarios relativos en Colombia, 1992-2004: factores de oferta y demanda

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    Este trabajo explica la evolución de los salarios relativos entre el sector formal e informal en Colombia durante 1992-2004 mediante un modelo de oferta y demanda relativa. Durante este periodo de análisis el país estuvo inmerso en un proceso de reformas estructurales, recesión y recuperación económica. Bajo el enfoque estructuralista, que define el empleo informal a partir de la afiliación a la seguridad social en salud, se observa una tendencia al alza del diferencial salarial entre el sector formal e informal en el período de estudio. El modelo aplicado, el cual se basa en Katz y Murphy (1992), permite concluir que el comportamiento de los salarios relativos depende tanto de factores de oferta como de demanda relativa. Los resultados sugieren un sesgo de la demanda relativa hacia trabajadores informales. Esto se explica en su mayor parte por cambios de tipo intrasectorial, asociados a cambios tecnológicos, en los precios de factores no laborales y en los esquemas de contratación. Para algunos grupos de trabajadores, como los más calificados y las mujeres, la oferta relativa fue el factor predominante en el comportamiento de los salarios relativos.Informalidad, salarios relativos

    Disparities in Spousal Desired Fertility and Land Tenure Expectations: Experimental Evidence from Rural Tanzania

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    Fertility decline in rural sub-Saharan Africa has lagged behind other developing countries. The gap in fertility preferences between men and women plays a pivotal role in determining household fertility and reproductive health outcomes, with men desiring more children and exerting more significant influence in household decision-making. This disparity becomes more pronounced in rural regions where patrilineal norms, especially those associated with land inheritance, remain prevalent. We estimate the effect of an informational family planning intervention on male and female fertility preferences in rural Tanzania. The experiment consisted of randomizing household consultations on modern contraception, with sessions conducted either jointly for husbands and wives or exclusively for wives in private. Surprisingly, husbands who engaged in joint consultations increased their desired additional number of children, and their wives mirrored this increase in fertility preferences. In contrast, women in private consultations reduced their additional desired number of children while their husbands’ preferences remained unchanged. We provide suggestive evidence that the unintended effects on fertility preferences might be motivated by land inheritance expectations, as our results are driven by households with firstborn daughters (rather than sons)

    La agricultura y la inserción en América Latina

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    Este documento discute la inserción internacional de la agricultura en América Latina, haciendo énfasis en los diferentes mecanismos subregionales a través de los cuales ha logrado la apertura de sus mercados desde la década de los noventa. Como marco general de referencia, este documento se inicia con una discusión sobre la importancia de la agricultura en América Latina. Luego, hace un balance de los avances de la liberalización agrícola en los diferentes escenarios de negociación subregional y destaca la problemática agrícola muy variada que enfrentan los diferentes países de América Latina. No sólo existen diferencias entre los países en el grado importador/exportador neto de alimentos, sino también en las estructuras de producción y exportación agrícolas y en los mercados de destino. Todo esto hace que diferentes escenarios de liberalización tengan diferentes incidencias en los países de la subregión.Agricultura, América Latina, liberalización regional, protección comercial