412 research outputs found

### Computing the Casselsâ€“Tate pairing on the 3-Selmer group of an elliptic curve

We extend the method of Cassels for computing the Cassels-Tate pairing on the 2-Selmer group of an elliptic curve, to the case of 3-Selmer groups. This requires significant modifications to both the local and global parts of the calculation. Our method is practical in sufficiently small examples, and can be used to improve the upper bound for the rank of an elliptic curve obtained by 3-descent

### Dense Packings of Superdisks and the Role of Symmetry

We construct the densest known two-dimensional packings of superdisks in the
plane whose shapes are defined by |x^(2p) + y^(2p)| <= 1, which contains both
convex-shaped particles (p > 0.5, with the circular-disk case p = 1) and
concave-shaped particles (0 < p < 0.5). The packings of the convex cases with p
1 generated by a recently developed event-driven molecular dynamics (MD)
simulation algorithm [Donev, Torquato and Stillinger, J. Comput. Phys. 202
(2005) 737] suggest exact constructions of the densest known packings. We find
that the packing density (covering fraction of the particles) increases
dramatically as the particle shape moves away from the "circular-disk" point (p
= 1). In particular, we find that the maximal packing densities of superdisks
for certain p 6 = 1 are achieved by one of the two families of Bravais lattice
packings, which provides additional numerical evidence for Minkowski's
conjecture concerning the critical determinant of the region occupied by a
superdisk. Moreover, our analysis on the generated packings reveals that the
broken rotational symmetry of superdisks influences the packing characteristics
in a non-trivial way. We also propose an analytical method to construct dense
packings of concave superdisks based on our observations of the structural
properties of packings of convex superdisks.Comment: 15 pages, 8 figure

### Identities for hyperelliptic P-functions of genus one, two and three in covariant form

We give a covariant treatment of the quadratic differential identities
satisfied by the P-functions on the Jacobian of smooth hyperelliptic curves of
genera 1, 2 and 3

### K-Rational D-Brane Crystals

In this paper the problem of constructing spacetime from string theory is
addressed in the context of D-brane physics. It is suggested that the knowledge
of discrete configurations of D-branes is sufficient to reconstruct the motivic
building blocks of certain Calabi-Yau varieties. The collections of D-branes
involved have algebraic base points, leading to the notion of K-arithmetic
D-crystals for algebraic number fields K. This idea can be tested for D0-branes
in the framework of toroidal compactifications via the conjectures of Birch and
Swinnerton-Dyer. For the special class of D0-crystals of Heegner type these
conjectures can be interpreted as formulae that relate the canonical Neron-Tate
height of the base points of the D-crystals to special values of the motivic
L-function at the central point. In simple cases the knowledge of the
D-crystals of Heegner type suffices to uniquely determine the geometry.Comment: 36 page

### Optimal Packings of Superballs

Dense hard-particle packings are intimately related to the structure of
low-temperature phases of matter and are useful models of heterogeneous
materials and granular media. Most studies of the densest packings in three
dimensions have considered spherical shapes, and it is only more recently that
nonspherical shapes (e.g., ellipsoids) have been investigated. Superballs
(whose shapes are defined by |x1|^2p + |x2|^2p + |x3|^2p <= 1) provide a
versatile family of convex particles (p >= 0.5) with both cubic- and
octahedral-like shapes as well as concave particles (0 < p < 0.5) with
octahedral-like shapes. In this paper, we provide analytical constructions for
the densest known superball packings for all convex and concave cases. The
candidate maximally dense packings are certain families of Bravais lattice
packings. The maximal packing density as a function of p is nonanalytic at the
sphere-point (p = 1) and increases dramatically as p moves away from unity. The
packing characteristics determined by the broken rotational symmetry of
superballs are similar to but richer than their two-dimensional "superdisk"
counterparts, and are distinctly different from that of ellipsoid packings. Our
candidate optimal superball packings provide a starting point to quantify the
equilibrium phase behavior of superball systems, which should deepen our
understanding of the statistical thermodynamics of nonspherical-particle
systems.Comment: 28 pages, 16 figure

### Renormalisation scheme for vector fields on T2 with a diophantine frequency

We construct a rigorous renormalisation scheme for analytic vector fields on
the 2-torus of Poincare type. We show that iterating this procedure there is
convergence to a limit set with a ``Gauss map'' dynamics on it, related to the
continued fraction expansion of the slope of the frequencies. This is valid for
diophantine frequency vectors.Comment: final versio

### Counterexamples, covering systems, and zero-one laws for inhomogeneous approximation

We develop the inhomogeneous counterpart to some key aspects of the story of the Duffin-Schaeffer Conjecture (1941). Specifically, we construct counterexamples to a number of candidates for a sans-monotonicity version of Schmidt's inhomogeneous (1964) version of Khintchine's Theorem (1924). For example, given any real sequence $\{y_i \}$, we build a divergent series of non-negative reals $\psi(n)$ such that for any $y\in\{y_i\}$, almost no real number is inhomogeneously $\psi$-approximable with inhomogeneous parameter $y$. Furthermore, given any second sequence $\{z_i\}$ not intersecting the rational span of $\{1,y_i\}$, we can ensure that almost every real number is inhomogeneously $\psi$-approximable with any inhomogeneous parameter $z\in\{z_i\}$. (This extension depends on a dynamical version of Erdos' Covering Systems Conjecture (1950).) Next, we prove a positive result that is near optimal in view of the limitations that our counterexamples impose. This leads to a discussion of natural analogues of the Duffin-Schaeffer Conjecture and Duffin-Schaeffer Theorem (1941) in the inhomogeneous setting. As a step toward these, we prove versions of Gallagher's Zero-One Law (1961) for inhomogeneous approximation by reduced fractions

### Maslov Indices and Monodromy

We prove that for a Hamiltonian system on a cotangent bundle that is
Liouville-integrable and has monodromy the vector of Maslov indices is an
eigenvector of the monodromy matrix with eigenvalue 1. As a corollary the
resulting restrictions on the monodromy matrix are derived.Comment: 6 page

### Seiberg duality, quiver gauge theories, and Ihara's zeta function

We study Iharaâ€™s zeta function for graphs in the context of quivers arising from gauge theories, especially under Seiberg duality transformations. The distribution of poles is studied as we proceed along the duality tree, in light of the weak and strong graph versions of the Riemann Hypothesis. As a by-product, we find a refined version of Iharaâ€™s zeta function to be the generating function for the generic superpotential of the gauge theory

### Rational approximation and arithmetic progressions

A reasonably complete theory of the approximation of an irrational by
rational fractions whose numerators and denominators lie in prescribed
arithmetic progressions is developed in this paper. Results are both, on the
one hand, from a metrical and a non-metrical point of view and, on the other
hand, from an asymptotic and also a uniform point of view. The principal
novelty is a Khintchine type theorem for uniform approximation in this context.
Some applications of this theory are also discussed

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