9,745 research outputs found

    Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

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    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of the space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed.Comment: Significantly enlarged and corrected version. Counterexamples found for the most general form of the inequalities. V3: minor change

    The logic of causally closed spacetime subsets

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    The causal structure of space-time offers a natural notion of an opposite or orthogonal in the logical sense, where the opposite of a set is formed by all points non time-like related with it. We show that for a general space-time the algebra of subsets that arises from this negation operation is a complete orthomodular lattice, and thus has several of the properties characterizing the algebra physical propositions in quantum mechanics. We think this fact could be used to investigate causal structure in an algebraic context. As a first step in this direction we show that the causal lattice is in addition atomic, find its atoms, and give necesary and sufficient conditions for ireducibility.Comment: 17 pages, 8 figure

    Mutual information challenges entropy bounds

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    We consider some formulations of the entropy bounds at the semiclassical level. The entropy S(V) localized in a region V is divergent in quantum field theory (QFT). Instead of it we focus on the mutual information I(V,W)=S(V)+S(W)-S(V\cup W) between two different non-intersecting sets V and W. This is a low energy quantity, independent of the regularization scheme. In addition, the mutual information is bounded above by twice the entropy corresponding to the sets involved. Calculations of I(V,W) in QFT show that the entropy in empty space cannot be renormalized to zero, and must be actually very large. We find that this entropy due to the vacuum fluctuations violates the FMW bound in Minkowski space. The mutual information also gives a precise, cutoff independent meaning to the statement that the number of degrees of freedom increases with the volume in QFT. If the holographic bound holds, this points to the essential non locality of the physical cutoff. Violations of the Bousso bound would require conformal theories and large distances. We speculate that the presence of a small cosmological constant might prevent such a violation.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures, minor change

    Remarks on the entanglement entropy for disconnected regions

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    Few facts are known about the entanglement entropy for disconnected regions in quantum field theory. We study here the property of extensivity of the mutual information, which holds for free massless fermions in two dimensions. We uncover the structure of the entropy function in the extensive case, and find an interesting connection with the renormalization group irreversibility. The solution is a function on space-time regions which complies with all the known requirements a relativistic entropy function has to satisfy. We show that the holographic ansatz of Ryu and Takayanagi, the free scalar and Dirac fields in dimensions greater than two, and the massive free fields in two dimensions all fail to be exactly extensive, disproving recent conjectures.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, some addition

    Removal of Spectro-Polarimetric Fringes by 2D Pattern Recognition

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    We present a pattern-recognition based approach to the problem of removal of polarized fringes from spectro-polarimetric data. We demonstrate that 2D Principal Component Analysis can be trained on a given spectro-polarimetric map in order to identify and isolate fringe structures from the spectra. This allows us in principle to reconstruct the data without the fringe component, providing an effective and clean solution to the problem. The results presented in this paper point in the direction of revising the way that science and calibration data should be planned for a typical spectro-polarimetric observing run.Comment: ApJ, in pres

    An improved lion strategy for the lion and man problem

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    In this paper, a novel lion strategy for David Gale's lion and man problem is proposed. The devised approach enhances a popular strategy proposed by Sgall, which relies on the computation of a suitable "center". The key idea of the new strategy is to update the center at each move, instead of computing it once and for all at the beginning of the game. Convergence of the proposed lion strategy is proven and an upper bound on the game length is derived, which dominates the existing bounds.Comment: Preprint submitted to IEEE Control Systems Letter

    Continuous record Laplace-based inference about the break date in structural change models

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    Building upon the continuous record asymptotic framework recently introduced by Casini and Perron (2018a) for inference in structural change models, we propose a Laplace-based (Quasi-Bayes) procedure for the construction of the estimate and confidence set for the date of a structural change. It is defined by an integration rather than an optimization-based method.A transformation of the least-squares criterion function is evaluated in order to derive a proper distribution, referred to as the Quasi-posterior. For a given choice of a loss function, the Laplace-type estimator is the minimizer of the expected risk with the expectation taken under the Quasi-posterior. Besides providing an alternative estimate that is more precise—lower mean absolute error (MAE) and lower root-mean squared error (RMSE)—than the usual least-squares one, the Quasi-posterior distribution can be used to construct asymptotically valid inference using the concept of Highest Density Region. The resulting Laplace-based inferential procedure is shown to have lower MAE and RMSE, and the confidence sets strike the best balance between empirical coverage rates and average lengths of the confidence sets relative to traditional long-span methods, whether the break size is small or large.First author draf
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