40 research outputs found

    In-Depth Method for the Characterization of Glycosylation in Manufactured Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody Drugs

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    The glycosylation in recombinant monoclonal antibody (rMab) drugs is a major concern in the biopharmaceutical industry as it impacts the drugs’ many attributes. Characterization is important but complicated by the intricate structures, microheterogeneity, and the limitations of current tools for structural analysis. In this study, we developed a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) N-glycan library based on eight commercial rMab drugs. A library of over 70 structures was developed for the rapid characterization of rMab. N-Glycans were separated on a porous graphitized carbon (PGC) column incorporated on a chip and then analyzed by an electrospray ionization hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) MS. The retention time and accurate mass for each N-glycan were recorded in the library. The complete structures were obtained through exoglycosidase sequencing. The results showed that most of the N-glycans between different antibodies are nearly the same with different abundances. The utility of this library enables one to identify structures in a rapid manner by matching LC retention times and accurate masses

    Annotation of a Serum N-Glycan Library for Rapid Identification of Structures

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    Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications of proteins and has been shown to change with various pathological states including cancer. Global glycan profiling of human serum based on mass spectrometry has already led to several promising markers for diseases. The changes in glycan structure can result in altered monosaccharide composition as well as in the linkages between the monosaccharides. High-throughput glycan structural elucidation is not possible because of the lack of a glycan template to expedite identification. In an effort toward rapid profiling and identification of glycans, we have constructed a library of structures for the serum glycome to aid in the rapid identification of serum glycans. N-Glycans from human serum glycoproteins are used as a standard and compiled into a library with exact structure (composition and linkage), liquid chromatography retention time, and accurate mass. Development of the library relies on highly reproducible nanoLC–MS retention times. Tandem MS and exoglycosidase digestions were used for structural elucidation. The library currently contains over 300 entries with 50 structures completely elucidated and over 60 partially elucidated structures. This database is steadily growing and will be used to rapidly identify glycans in unknown biological samples

    Quantitative Analysis of Gangliosides in Bovine Milk and Colostrum-Based Dairy Products by Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    Milk gangliosides have gained considerable attention because they participate in diverse biological processes, including neural development, pathogen binding, and activation of the immune system. Herein, we present a quantitative measurement of the gangliosides present in bovine milk and other dairy products and byproducts. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography separation was used for high-throughput analysis and achieved a short running time without sacrificing chromatographic resolution. Dynamic multiple reaction monitoring was conducted for 12 transitions for GM3 and 12 transitions for GD3. Transitions to sialic acid fragments (<i>m</i>/<i>z</i> 290.1) were chosen for the quantitation. There was a considerable amount of gangliosides in day 2 milk (GM3, 0.98 mg/L; GD3, 15.2 mg/L) which dramatically decreased at day 15 and day 90. GM3 and GD3 were also analyzed in pooled colostrum, colostrum cream, colostrum butter, and colostrum buttermilk. The separation and analytical approaches here proposed could be integrated into the dairy industry processing adding value to side-streams

    Quantitation of Site-Specific Glycosylation in Manufactured Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody Drugs

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    During the development of recombinant monoclonal antibody (rMAb) drugs, glycosylation receives particular focus because changes in the attached glycans can have a significant impact on the antibody effector functions. The vast heterogeneity of structures that exist across glycosylation sites hinders the in-depth analysis of glycan changes specific to an individual protein within a complex mixture. In this study, we established a sensitive and specific method for monitoring site-specific glycosylation in rMAbs using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) on an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole MS (UHPLC-QqQ-MS). Our results showed that irrespective of the IgG subclass expressed in the drugs, the N-glycopeptide profiles are nearly the same but differ in abundances. In all rMAb drugs, a single subclass of IgG comprised over 97% of the total IgG content and showed over 97% N-glycan site occupancy. This study demonstrates the utility of an MRM-based method to rapidly characterize over 130 distinct glycopeptides and determine the extent of site occupancy within minutes. Such multilevel structural characterization is important for the successful development of therapeutic antibodies

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of peak m/z 1893 [M+Na].

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    <p>The main fragmentation pattern shows the loss of one fucose (triangle) followed by the loss of 5 HexNAc (squares) leading to the residue MW 712.16 with composition 3Hex+1HexNAc. The total composition of ion MW 1893.21 3 Hex +6 HexNAc +1 Fuc (HexNAc: N-Acetylhexsamine-(GlcNAc/GalNAc); Hex: hexose; Fuc: fucose).</p

    EnzymePredictor: A Tool for Predicting and Visualizing Enzymatic Cleavages of Digested Proteins

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    Mass spectrometric analysis of peptides contained in enzymatically digested hydrolysates of proteins is increasingly being used to characterize potentially bioactive or otherwise interesting hydrolysates. However, when preparations containing mixtures of enzymes are used, from either biological or experimental sources, it is unclear which of these enzymes have been most important in hydrolyzing the sample. We have developed a tool to rapidly evaluate the evidence for which enzymes are most likely to have cleaved the sample. EnzymePredictor, a web-based software, has been developed to (i) identify the protein sources of fragments found in the hydrolysates and map them back on it, (ii) identify enzymes that could yield such cleavages, and (iii) generate a colored visualization of the hydrolysate, the source proteins, the fragments, and the predicted enzymes. It tabulates the enzymes ranked according to their cleavage counts. The provision of odds ratio and standard error in the table permits users to evaluate how distinctively particular enzymes may be favored over other enzymes as the most likely cleavers of the samples. Finally, the method displays the cleavage not only according to peptides, but also according to proteins, permitting evaluation of whether the cleavage pattern is general across all proteins, or specific to a subset. We illustrate the application of this method using milk hydrolysates, and show how it can rapidly identify the enzymes or enzyme combinations used in generating the peptides. The approach developed here will accelerate the identification of enzymes most likely to have been used in hydrolyzing a set of mass spectrometrically identified peptides derived from proteins. This has utility not only in understanding the results of mass spectrometry experiments, but also in choosing enzymes likely to yield similar cleavage patterns. EnzymePredictor can be found at http://bioware.ucd.ie/∼enzpred/Enzpred.ph

    EnzymePredictor: A Tool for Predicting and Visualizing Enzymatic Cleavages of Digested Proteins

    No full text
    Mass spectrometric analysis of peptides contained in enzymatically digested hydrolysates of proteins is increasingly being used to characterize potentially bioactive or otherwise interesting hydrolysates. However, when preparations containing mixtures of enzymes are used, from either biological or experimental sources, it is unclear which of these enzymes have been most important in hydrolyzing the sample. We have developed a tool to rapidly evaluate the evidence for which enzymes are most likely to have cleaved the sample. EnzymePredictor, a web-based software, has been developed to (i) identify the protein sources of fragments found in the hydrolysates and map them back on it, (ii) identify enzymes that could yield such cleavages, and (iii) generate a colored visualization of the hydrolysate, the source proteins, the fragments, and the predicted enzymes. It tabulates the enzymes ranked according to their cleavage counts. The provision of odds ratio and standard error in the table permits users to evaluate how distinctively particular enzymes may be favored over other enzymes as the most likely cleavers of the samples. Finally, the method displays the cleavage not only according to peptides, but also according to proteins, permitting evaluation of whether the cleavage pattern is general across all proteins, or specific to a subset. We illustrate the application of this method using milk hydrolysates, and show how it can rapidly identify the enzymes or enzyme combinations used in generating the peptides. The approach developed here will accelerate the identification of enzymes most likely to have been used in hydrolyzing a set of mass spectrometrically identified peptides derived from proteins. This has utility not only in understanding the results of mass spectrometry experiments, but also in choosing enzymes likely to yield similar cleavage patterns. EnzymePredictor can be found at http://bioware.ucd.ie/∼enzpred/Enzpred.ph
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