858 research outputs found

    Generalised Dice overlap as a deep learning loss function for highly unbalanced segmentations

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    Deep-learning has proved in recent years to be a powerful tool for image analysis and is now widely used to segment both 2D and 3D medical images. Deep-learning segmentation frameworks rely not only on the choice of network architecture but also on the choice of loss function. When the segmentation process targets rare observations, a severe class imbalance is likely to occur between candidate labels, thus resulting in sub-optimal performance. In order to mitigate this issue, strategies such as the weighted cross-entropy function, the sensitivity function or the Dice loss function, have been proposed. In this work, we investigate the behavior of these loss functions and their sensitivity to learning rate tuning in the presence of different rates of label imbalance across 2D and 3D segmentation tasks. We also propose to use the class re-balancing properties of the Generalized Dice overlap, a known metric for segmentation assessment, as a robust and accurate deep-learning loss function for unbalanced tasks

    Training recurrent neural networks robust to incomplete data: application to Alzheimer's disease progression modeling

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    Disease progression modeling (DPM) using longitudinal data is a challenging machine learning task. Existing DPM algorithms neglect temporal dependencies among measurements, make parametric assumptions about biomarker trajectories, do not model multiple biomarkers jointly, and need an alignment of subjects' trajectories. In this paper, recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are utilized to address these issues. However, in many cases, longitudinal cohorts contain incomplete data, which hinders the application of standard RNNs and requires a pre-processing step such as imputation of the missing values. Instead, we propose a generalized training rule for the most widely used RNN architecture, long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, that can handle both missing predictor and target values. The proposed LSTM algorithm is applied to model the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using six volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers, i.e., volumes of ventricles, hippocampus, whole brain, fusiform, middle temporal gyrus, and entorhinal cortex, and it is compared to standard LSTM networks with data imputation and a parametric, regression-based DPM method. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieves a significantly lower mean absolute error (MAE) than the alternatives with p < 0.05 using Wilcoxon signed rank test in predicting values of almost all of the MRI biomarkers. Moreover, a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier applied to the predicted biomarker values produces a significantly larger AUC of 0.90 vs. at most 0.84 with p < 0.001 using McNemar's test for clinical diagnosis of AD. Inspection of MAE curves as a function of the amount of missing data reveals that the proposed LSTM algorithm achieves the best performance up until more than 74% missing values. Finally, it is illustrated how the method can successfully be applied to data with varying time intervals.Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1808.0550

    Solid NURBS Conforming Scaffolding for Isogeometric Analysis

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    This work introduces a scaffolding framework to compactly parametrise solid structures with conforming NURBS elements for isogeometric analysis. A novel formulation introduces a topological, geometrical and parametric subdivision of the space in a minimal plurality of conforming vectorial elements. These determine a multi-compartmental scaffolding for arbitrary branching patterns. A solid smoothing paradigm is devised for the conforming scaffolding achieving higher than positional geometrical and parametric continuity. Results are shown for synthetic shapes of varying complexity, for modular CAD geometries, for branching structures from tessellated meshes and for organic biological structures from imaging data. Representative simulations demonstrate the validity of the introduced scaffolding framework with scalable performance and groundbreaking applications for isogeometric analysis

    A Heteroscedastic Uncertainty Model for Decoupling Sources of MRI Image Quality

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    Quality control (QC) of medical images is essential to ensure that downstream analyses such as segmentation can be performed successfully. Currently, QC is predominantly performed visually at significant time and operator cost. We aim to automate the process by formulating a probabilistic network that estimates uncertainty through a heteroscedastic noise model, hence providing a proxy measure of task-specific image quality that is learnt directly from the data. By augmenting the training data with different types of simulated k-space artefacts, we propose a novel cascading CNN architecture based on a student-teacher framework to decouple sources of uncertainty related to different k-space augmentations in an entirely self-supervised manner. This enables us to predict separate uncertainty quantities for the different types of data degradation. While the uncertainty measures reflect the presence and severity of image artefacts, the network also provides the segmentation predictions given the quality of the data. We show models trained with simulated artefacts provide informative measures of uncertainty on real-world images and we validate our uncertainty predictions on problematic images identified by human-raters

    Deep Boosted Regression for MR to CT Synthesis

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    Attenuation correction is an essential requirement of positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction to allow for accurate quantification. However, attenuation correction is particularly challenging for PET-MRI as neither PET nor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can directly image tissue attenuation properties. MRI-based computed tomography (CT) synthesis has been proposed as an alternative to physics based and segmentation-based approaches that assign a population-based tissue density value in order to generate an attenuation map. We propose a novel deep fully convolutional neural network that generates synthetic CTs in a recursive manner by gradually reducing the residuals of the previous network, increasing the overall accuracy and generalisability, while keeping the number of trainable parameters within reasonable limits. The model is trained on a database of 20 pre-acquired MRI/CT pairs and a four-fold random bootstrapped validation with a 80:20 split is performed. Quantitative results show that the proposed framework outperforms a state-of-the-art atlas-based approach decreasing the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) from 131HU to 68HU for the synthetic CTs and reducing the PET reconstruction error from 14.3% to 7.2%.Comment: Accepted at SASHIMI201
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