4,709 research outputs found

    Reversibility in Massive Concurrent Systems

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    Reversing a (forward) computation history means undoing the history. In concurrent systems, undoing the history is not performed in a deterministic way but in a causally consistent fashion, where states that are reached during a backward computation are states that could have been reached during the computation history by just performing independent actions in a different order.Comment: Presented at MeCBIC 201

    From Electric Circuits to Chemical Networks

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    Electric circuits manipulate electric charge and magnetic flux via a small set of discrete components to implement useful functionality over continuous time-varying signals represented by currents and voltages. Much of the same functionality is useful to biological organisms, where it is implemented by a completely different set of discrete components (typically proteins) and signal representations (typically via concentrations). We describe how to take a linear electric circuit and systematically convert it to a chemical reaction network of the same functionality, as a dynamical system. Both the structure and the components of the electric circuit are dissolved in the process, but the resulting chemical network is intelligible. This approach provides access to a large library of well-studied devices, from analog electronics, whose chemical network realization can be compared to natural biochemical networks, or used to engineer synthetic biochemical networks

    Biomarkers in emergency medicine

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    Researchers navigate the ocean of biomarkers searching for proper targets and optimal utilization of them. Emergency medicine builds up the front line to maximize the utility of clinically validated biomarkers and is the cutting edge field to test the applicability of promising biomarkers emerging from thorough translational researches. The role of biomarkers in clinical decision making would be of greater significance for identification, risk stratification, monitoring, and prognostication of the patients in the critical- and acute-care settings. No doubt basic research to explore novel biomarkers in relation to the pathogenesis is as important as its clinical counterpart. This special issue includes five selected research papers that cover a variety of biomarker- and disease-related topics

    Observations of ultraviolet variability in RV Tauri stars

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    An IUE program to monitor the ultraviolet variability in RV Tauri stars was initiated. The Mg II region was investigated as a potential probe of atmospheric shocks, which are believed to be associated with the pulsational variability of this class of objects. Observations, a description of the spectra, and findings for V Vul and AC Her are presented. The Mg II emission does vary significantly during the cycle; major changes in the emission line strength occur on a time scale much less than 0.2 in phase; and as the UV (and optical) continuum flux increases, the Mg II lines decrease and increased emission may be seen at 2823, 2844, and 2900 A

    Forward and Backward Bisimulations for Chemical Reaction Networks

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    We present two quantitative behavioral equivalences over species of a chemical reaction network (CRN) with semantics based on ordinary differential equations. Forward CRN bisimulation identifies a partition where each equivalence class represents the exact sum of the concentrations of the species belonging to that class. Backward CRN bisimulation relates species that have the identical solutions at all time points when starting from the same initial conditions. Both notions can be checked using only CRN syntactical information, i.e., by inspection of the set of reactions. We provide a unified algorithm that computes the coarsest refinement up to our bisimulations in polynomial time. Further, we give algorithms to compute quotient CRNs induced by a bisimulation. As an application, we find significant reductions in a number of models of biological processes from the literature. In two cases we allow the analysis of benchmark models which would be otherwise intractable due to their memory requirements.Comment: Extended version of the CONCUR 2015 pape

    Two-Domain DNA Strand Displacement

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    We investigate the computing power of a restricted class of DNA strand displacement structures: those that are made of double strands with nicks (interruptions) in the top strand. To preserve this structural invariant, we impose restrictions on the single strands they interact with: we consider only two-domain single strands consisting of one toehold domain and one recognition domain. We study fork and join signal-processing gates based on these structures, and we show that these systems are amenable to formalization and to mechanical verification

    Experimental Biological Protocols with Formal Semantics

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    Both experimental and computational biology is becoming increasingly automated. Laboratory experiments are now performed automatically on high-throughput machinery, while computational models are synthesized or inferred automatically from data. However, integration between automated tasks in the process of biological discovery is still lacking, largely due to incompatible or missing formal representations. While theories are expressed formally as computational models, existing languages for encoding and automating experimental protocols often lack formal semantics. This makes it challenging to extract novel understanding by identifying when theory and experimental evidence disagree due to errors in the models or the protocols used to validate them. To address this, we formalize the syntax of a core protocol language, which provides a unified description for the models of biochemical systems being experimented on, together with the discrete events representing the liquid-handling steps of biological protocols. We present both a deterministic and a stochastic semantics to this language, both defined in terms of hybrid processes. In particular, the stochastic semantics captures uncertainties in equipment tolerances, making it a suitable tool for both experimental and computational biologists. We illustrate how the proposed protocol language can be used for automated verification and synthesis of laboratory experiments on case studies from the fields of chemistry and molecular programming
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