446 research outputs found

    Advantages and risks of nanotechnologies in cancer patients and occupationally exposed workers.

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    Introduction: In recent years, different nanotechnology platforms for drug delivery in the area of medical biology have gained remarkable attention. Areas covered: Nanoparticles (NPs) used as drug delivery vehicles consist of different materials such as natural or synthetic polymers, lipids or metals. They have an ultra-small size, large surface area-to-mass ratio and high reactivity. Although there are many data on the advantages in terms of both higher efficacy and less adverse effects of nanodrugs, several recent findings have reported unexpected toxicities giving origin to nanotoxicology. Expert opinion: Despite the great promise that NPs show, few studies have examined the human body's reaction due to NP exposure in both patients and workers. To perform this type of evaluation, it is necessary to define an adequate index of exposure, and the measure of this index is representative of what the worker is breathing. The properties of the nanomaterials used for designing NPs, such as in the case of poorly biocompatible materials (carbon nanotubes or heavy metals), and their chemical composition (as in the case of liposomes) largely contribute in determining potential side effects. Awareness of the levels of particles, which can cause health effects, is necessary for the workers and exposed patients

    Therapeutic nanoproducts: from biology to innovative technology

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    Proceedings of the Conference Therapeutic nanoproducts: from biology to innovative technology - Rome, 19-20 June 2019 Co-Organized by Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) and Associazione Italiana di Colture Cellulari (AICC

    Treatment of c-kit positive adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tongue: a case report

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    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) or ‘cylindroma’ is a malignant tumor that often occurs in the areas of the head and neck, affecting the secretory glands and the major and minor salivary glands. The present study describes a case of a patient who presented with a posterior tongue lesion. The case is of a 71-year-old female with an asymptomatic volume growth of the posterior left tongue perceived 8 months prior, and neoplastic cells positive for c-kit. A computed tomography of the head and neck showed asymmetry of the base of the tongue, which was enlarged in the left portion. A physical examination revealed a nodule on the posterior left tongue of ~3 cm in diameter, while the cervical lymph node chain had a normal size and consistency. Surgical exeresis of the tongue lesion and cervical lymph node dissection were performed. Subsequent to surgical removal of the cancer cells and adjuvant radiotherapy, the patient showed excellent health, although the follow-up remains in progress. ACC, one of the most biologically destructive tumors of the head and neck, is locally aggressive and gives rise to distant metastases. The tongue is the place of origin in 3.4–17.1% of cases. The treatment for ACC consists of primary surgical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. To prevent the risk for distant metastasis, it is necessary to remove the first echelon nodes and monitor the patient with a long-term follow-up

    BK Virus Infection and BK-Virus-Associated Nephropathy in Renal Transplant Recipients

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    Poliomavirus BK virus (BKV) is highly infective, causing asymptomatic infections during childhood. After the initial infection, a stable state of latent infection is recognized in kidney tubular cells and the uroepithelium with negligible clinical consequences. BKV is an important risk factor for BKV-associated diseases, and, in particular, for BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVN) in renal transplanted recipients (RTRs). BKVN affects up to 10% of renal transplanted recipients, and results in graft loss in up to 50% of those affected. Unfortunately, treatments for BK virus infection are restricted, and there is no efficient prophylaxis. In addition, consequent immunosuppressive therapy reduction contributes to immune rejection. Increasing surveillance and early diagnosis based upon easy and rapid analyses are resulting in more beneficial outcomes. In this report, the current status and perspectives in the diagnosis and treatment of BKV in RTRs are reviewed

    Molecular technology and the recombinant TSH have changed diagnostics of thyroid carcinoma with positive I-131 whole body scan but low serum thyroglobulin.

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    The early detection of recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) cells in the post surgery DTC patients relies on the sensitivity of measuring both the level of thyroglobulin (Tg) and 131-Iodine distribution by Whole Body Scan (WBS). Undetectable level of Tg associated with negative WBS or elevated levels of Tg associated with positive WBS ("concordant") is ordinarily indicative of either absence or presence of disease. At times, elevated level of Tg with negative WBS or low levels of Tg with positive WBS ("discordant") could also occur. In the present study, we retrospectively reviewed series of 573 patients with DTC followed in the Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy of the University "Federico II" of Naples between 1993 and 1997. We focused on 9 out of 573 patients (1.56%) who had a discordant pattern with low level of Tg/positive WBS in the post-surgical follow-up. Four patients were metastatic at presentation while 5 patients with metastasis during follow-up still remained in persistently low levels of Tg (<5 ng/mL). This result does point to some flaw in the evaluation of "discordant" cases. Reviewing data previously described series by resetting cut-off values of Tg <1 ng/ml as undetectable changed the apparent "discordant" subgroup of patients into "concordant". Recent introduction of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) to enhance the expression level of Tg brought significant increase in the sensitivity of diagnostic evaluation of thyroid cancer patients. The role of burdensome WBS in the follow up evaluation of DTC patients is significantly reduced over time especially in low-risk patients while the relevance of Tg assay is steadily increased. Sensitive Tg assays, significantly improved our ability to assess disease status in follow-up of DTC. Given the possibility of late disease relapses, the need for long-term follow-up, and reduced delay in treatment of persistent disease, there is still need for greater sensitive diagnostic tools for DTC

    Urotensin-II Receptor: A Double Identity Receptor Involved in Vasoconstriction and in the Development of Digestive Tract Cancers and other Tumors

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    Urotensin II and Urotensin-II receptors are important molecular factors that regulate vasoconstriction and all the diseases that are linked to abnormalities in blood pressure regulation (i.e.: hypertension, kidney diseases, cirrhosis etc.). Recently, Urotensin II and its receptor have also been involved in metabolic syndrome, diabetes and schizophrenia. Recent strong findings suggest that Urotensin II and its receptor are involved in the onset and development of different epithelial cancers. Indeed, it was reported that cell growth, motility and invasion in human breast, bladder, prostate, colorectal and glioblastoma cancer cells were regulated by Urotensin II and Urotensin-II receptor axis. This axis also regulated focal adhesion kinase and small Guanosine-5'-triphosphate binding proteins that likely had a role in motility and invasion mediated by Urotensin-II receptor. Additionally, its expression on tumour tissues is variably associated to the prediction of the clinical outcome of the patients and it can be considered an alternative molecular marker to be used as prognostic factor in human cancers. In conclusion, a new weapon in the treatment of human cancers is highlighting a new scenario for the future

    Peptide functionalization of silicon for detection and classification of prostatic cells

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    The development of simple, rapid, and low costmethods for early detection, identification, andmeasurement ofmultiple biomarkers remains a challenge to improve diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prognosis of cancer. Biosensing technology, combining the properties of biological systems with functional advanced materials, guarantees rapid, reproducible, and highly sensitive cell detection. In this study, we developed silicon-based biochips for prostate cancer PC3 cells detection by using cytokeratin 8/18 and Urotensin Receptor (UTR) as markers in order to obtain a biochip-based diagnostic system. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to characterize surface homogeneity and chemical properties. Cell detection was investigated by optical microscopy.Moreover, synthetic fluorescently labeled peptides were prepared and used for developing faster and lowercost identification assay compared with classic ELISA immunoassay. Results showed an effective immobilization of PC3 cells on silicon surface and the specific recognition of these cells by fluorescent Urotensin II (4-11). In conclusion, this strategy could be really useful as diagnostic system for prostate cancer

    Keratin 5 expression in squamocellular carcinoma of the head and neck

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    Keratin 5 (K5) is present in the basal layer of a stratified squamous keratinized and non-keratinized epithelium. K5 and K14 have been demonstrated in the mucosa and tumors of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx, and in the mitotic active basal cells of a stratified squamous epithelium. The aim of the present study was to assess K5 expression in squamocellular carcinoma with various localizations in the head and neck. A total of 13 biopsy fragments were included from patients diagnosed with squamocellular carcinoma of the larynx area (n=2), pharynx (n=2), hard palate (n=1), tongue (n=2), submandibular (n=1), lip (n=1), gingival sulcus (n=1), nasal pyramid (n=1), maxilla (n=1) and zygomatic (n=1). The immunohistochemical staining for K5 was evaluated according to the following score criteria: 0 (0% positive cells); 1 (<10% positive cells); 2 (10–30% positive cells); and 3 (>30% positive cells). K5 expression was observed in all squamocellular carcinomas included in the present study with scores between 1 and 3. For well- and moderately-differentiated histopathological types, a maximum score of 3 was recorded for all of the cases, not including the laryngeal area, which presented a score of 2. The following scores were identified in the regions of the poorly differentiated carcinomas: Jaw, 3; gingival sulcus, 2; and tongue and submandibular area, 1. These observations may aid with an improved stratification of head and neck squamocellular carcinoma, thus improving the diagnosis and treatment strategies for this type of cancer

    The Role of Target Therapy in the Treatment of Gastrointestinal Noncolorectal Cancers: Clinical Impact and Cost Consideration

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    Gastrointestinal (GI) tumors are among the leading cause of death in cancer patients worldwide. Particularly, gastric cancer (GC) is the third cause of cancer deaths, whereas esophageal neoplasm is the eighth leading most common cancer worldwide and its incidence, especially adenocarcinoma type, is continuously increasing. Also, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer represent a very interesting model to multidisciplinary approach and recently new drugs are used in their treatment. Currently, new clinical trials are designed including classic chemotherapy in association with either small molecule inhibitors (i.e. Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors) and/or monoclonal antibody (i.e. anti-EGFR antibody). Moreover, a comprehensive list of new molecules for target therapy is included in this issue. The development of new treatment modalities (multidisciplinary approach) and targeted therapy approaches have contributed to improving the outcome in these cancer diseases. During the past few years, remarkable progress in molecular biology of malignancy, the discovery of specific targets, and the resulting development of systemic drugs that block critical kinases and several molecular pathways have all contributed to progress in cancer treatment, also in GI non-colorectal cancer treatment

    Silybin-Phosphatidylcholine Complex Protects Human Gastric and Liver Cells from Oxidative Stress

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    Silybin is the main component of silymarin with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions. Our aim was to compare the effect of silybin used as single substance, silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (SilPho), and derivatives of silybin (MannpSil, GalpSil, GlcpSil, LactpSil) on MKN28 and HepG2 cell viability and cell death, in vitro, after induction of oxidative stress
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