327 research outputs found

    Critical issues of double-metal layer coating on FBG for applications at high temperatures

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    Use of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to monitor high temperature (HT) applications is of great interest to the research community. Standard commercial FBGs can operate up to 600 ∘ C. For applications beyond that value, specific processing of the FBGs must be adopted to allow the grating not to deteriorate. The most common technique used to process FBGs for HT applications is the regeneration procedure (RP), which typically extends their use up to 1000 ∘ C. RP involves a long-term annealing of the FBGs, to be done at a temperature ranging from 550 to 950 ∘ C. As at that temperature, the original coating of the FBGs would burn out, they shall stay uncoated, and their brittleness is a serious concern to deal with. Depositing a metal coating on the FBGs prior to process them for RP offers an effective solution to provide them with the necessary mechanical strengthening. In this paper, a procedure to provide the FBG with a bimetallic coating made by copper and nickel electrodeposition (ED) is proposed, discussing issues related to the coating morphology, adherence to the fiber, and effects on the grating spectral response. To define the processing parameters of the proposed procedure, production tests were performed on dummy samples which were used for destructive SEM-EDS analysis. As a critical step, the proposed procedure was shown to necessitate a heat treatment after the nickel ED, to remove the absorbed hydrogen. The spectral response of the FBG samples was monitored along the various steps of the proposed procedure and, as a final proof test for adherence stability of the bimetallic coating, along a heating/cooling cycle from room temperature to 1010 ∘ C. The results suggest that, given the emergence of Kirkendall voids at the copper-nickel interface, occurring at the highest temperatures (700-1010 ∘ C), the bimetallic layer could be employed as FBG coating up to 700 ∘ C

    Fiber Bragg Grating sensors for deformation monitoring of GEM foils in HEP detectors

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    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been so far mainly used in high energy physics (HEP) as high precision positioning and re-positioning sensors and as low cost, easy to mount, radiation hard and low space- consuming temperature and humidity devices. FBGs are also commonly used for very precise strain measurements. In this work we present a novel use of FBGs as flatness and mechanical tensioning sensors applied to the wide Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils of the GE1/1 chambers of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. A network of FBG sensors has been used to determine the optimal mechanical tension applied and to characterize the mechanical stress applied to the foils. The preliminary results of the test performed on a full size GE1/1 final prototype and possible future developments will be discussed.Comment: Four pages, seven figures. Presented by Michele Caponero at IWASI 2015, Gallipoli (Italy

    Cms gem detector material study for the hl-lhc

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    A study on the Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil material is performed to determine the moisture diffusion rate, moisture saturation level and the effects on its mechanical properties. The study is focused on the foil contact with ambient air and moisture to determine the value of the diffusion coefficient of water in the foil material. The presence of water inside the detector foil can determine the changes in its mechanical and electrical properties. A simulated model is developed with COMSOL Multiphysics v. 4.3 [1] by taking into account the real GEM foil (hole dimensions, shapes and material), which describes the adsorption of water. This work describes the model, its experimental verification, the water diffusion within the entire sheet geometry of the GEM foil, thus gaining concentration profiles and the time required to saturate the system and the effects on the mechanical properties

    Cardio-respiratory monitoring in archery using a smart textile based on flexible fiber bragg grating sensors

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    In precision sports, the control of breathing and heart rate is crucial to help the body to remain stable in the shooting position. To improve stability, archers try to adopt similar breathing patterns and to have a low heartbeat during each shot. We proposed an easy-to-use and unobtrusive smart textile (ST) which is able to detect chest wall excursions due to breathing and heart beating. The sensing part is based on two FBGs housed into a soft polymer matrix to optimize the adherence to the chest wall and the system robustness. The ST was assessed on volunteers to figure out its performance in the estimation of respiratory frequency (fR) and heart rate (HR). Then, the system was tested on two archers during four shooting sessions. This is the first study to monitor cardio-respiratory activity on archers during shooting. The good performance of the ST is supported by the low mean absolute percentage error for fR and HR estimation (≤1.97% and ≤5.74%, respectively), calculated with respect to reference signals (flow sensor for fR, photopletismography sensor for HR). Moreover, results showed the capability of the ST to estimate fR and HR during different phases of shooting action. The promising results motivate future investigations to speculate about the influence of fR and HR on archers’ performance

    Characterization of the water diffusion in GEM foil material

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    Systematic studies on the GEM foil material are performed to measure the moisture diffusion rate and saturation level.These studies are important because the presence of this compound inside the detector’s foil can possibly change its mechanical and electrical properties,and in such a way,the detector performance can be affected.To understand this phenomenon,a model is developed with COMSOL Multiphysicsv.4.3 which described the adsorption and diffusion within the geometry of GEM foil,the concentration profiles and the time required to saturate the foil.The COMSOL model is verified by experimental observations on a GEM foil sample.This note will describe the model and its experimental verification results

    A Novel Approach for an Integrated Straw tube-Microstrip Detector

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    We report on a novel concept of silicon microstrips and straw tubes detector, where integration is accomplished by a straw module with straws not subjected to mechanical tension in a Rohacell ®^{\circledR} lattice and carbon fiber reinforced plastic shell. Results on mechanical and test beam performances are reported on as well.Comment: Accepted by Transactions on Nuclear Science (2005). 11 pages, 9 figures, uses lnfprep.st

    The Upgrade of the CMS RPC System during the First LHC Long Shutdown

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    The CMS muon system includes in both the barrel and endcap region Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). They mainly serve as trigger detectors and also improve the reconstruction of muon parameters. Over the years, the instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider gradually increases. During the LHC Phase 1 (~first 10 years of operation) an ultimate luminosity is expected above its design value of 10^34/cm^2/s at 14 TeV. To prepare the machine and also the experiments for this, two long shutdown periods are scheduled for 2013-2014 and 2018-2019. The CMS Collaboration is planning several detector upgrades during these long shutdowns. In particular, the muon detection system should be able to maintain a low-pT threshold for an efficient Level-1 Muon Trigger at high particle rates. One of the measures to ensure this, is to extend the present RPC system with the addition of a 4th layer in both endcap regions. During the first long shutdown, these two new stations will be equipped in the region |eta|<1.6 with 144 High Pressure Laminate (HPL) double-gap RPCs operating in avalanche mode, with a similar design as the existing CMS endcap chambers. Here, we present the upgrade plans for the CMS RPC system for the fist long shutdown, including trigger simulation studies for the extended system, and details on the new HPL production, the chamber assembly and the quality control procedures.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, presented by M.Tytgat at the XI workshop on Resistive Plate Chambers and Related Detectors (RPC2012), INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, February 5-10, 201

    A 1 m3^3 Gas Time Projection Chamber with Optical Readout for Directional Dark Matter Searches: the CYGNO Experiment

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    The aim of the CYGNO project is the construction and operation of a 1~m3^3 gas TPC for directional dark matter searches and coherent neutrino scattering measurements, as a prototype toward the 100-1000~m3^3 (0.15-1.5 tons) CYGNUS network of underground experiments. In such a TPC, electrons produced by dark-matter- or neutrino-induced nuclear recoils will drift toward and will be multiplied by a three-layer GEM structure, and the light produced in the avalanche processes will be readout by a sCMOS camera, providing a 2D image of the event with a resolution of a few hundred micrometers. Photomultipliers will also provide a simultaneous fast readout of the time profile of the light production, giving information about the third coordinate and hence allowing a 3D reconstruction of the event, from which the direction of the nuclear recoil and consequently the direction of the incoming particle can be inferred. Such a detailed reconstruction of the event topology will also allow a pure and efficient signal to background discrimination. These two features are the key to reach and overcome the solar neutrino background that will ultimately limit non-directional dark matter searches.Comment: 5 page, 7 figures, contribution to the Conference Records of 2018 IEEE NSS/MI

    Gas Analysis and Monitoring Systems for the RPC Detector of CMS at LHC

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    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detector of the CMS experiment at the LHC proton collider (CERN, Switzerland) will employ an online gas analysis and monitoring system of the freon-based gas mixture used. We give an overview of the CMS RPC gas system, describe the project parameters and first results on gas-chromatograph analysis. Finally, we report on preliminary results for a set of monitor RPC.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures. Presented by Stefano Bianco (Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell'INFN) at the IEEE NSS, San Diego (USA), October 200
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