157 research outputs found

    Differential responses of rabbit ventricular and atrial transient outward current (Ito) to the Ito modulator NS5806

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    Transient outward potassium current (I(to)) in the heart underlies phase 1 repolarization of cardiac action potentials and thereby affects excitation–contraction coupling. Small molecule activators of I(to) may therefore offer novel treatments for cardiac dysfunction, including heart failure and atrial fibrillation. NS5806 has been identified as a prototypic activator of canine I(to). This study investigated, for the first time, actions of NS5806 on rabbit atrial and ventricular I(to). Whole cell patch‐clamp recordings of I(to) and action potentials were made at physiological temperature from rabbit ventricular and atrial myocytes. 10 μmol/L NS5806 increased ventricular I(to) with a leftward shift in I(to) activation and accelerated restitution. At higher concentrations, stimulation of I(to) was followed by inhibition. The EC (50) for stimulation was 1.6 μmol/L and inhibition had an IC (50) of 40.7 μmol/L. NS5806 only inhibited atrial I(to) (IC (50) of 18 μmol/L) and produced a modest leftward shifts in I(to) activation and inactivation, without an effect on restitution. 10 μmol/L NS5806 shortened ventricular action potential duration (APD) at APD (20)‐APD (90) but prolonged atrial APD. NS5806 also reduced atrial AP upstroke and amplitude, consistent with an additional atrio‐selective effect on Na(+) channels. In contrast to NS5806, flecainide, which discriminates between Kv1.4 and 4.x channels, produced similar levels of inhibition of ventricular and atrial I(to). NS5806 discriminates between rabbit ventricular and atrial I(to,) with mixed activator and inhibitor actions on the former and inhibitor actions against the later. NS5806 may be of significant value for pharmacological interrogation of regional differences in native cardiac I(to)

    Changes in the Organization of Excitation-Contraction Coupling Structures in Failing Human Heart

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    The cardiac myocyte t-tubular system ensures rapid, uniform cell activation and several experimental lines of evidence suggest changes in the t-tubular system and associated excitation-contraction coupling proteins may occur in heart failure

    Inducing Ito,f and phase 1 repolarization of the cardiac action potential with a Kv4.3/KChIP2.1 bicistronic transgene

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    The fast transient outward potassium current (I(to,f)) plays a key role in phase 1 repolarization of the human cardiac action potential (AP) and its reduction in heart failure (HF) contributes to the loss of contractility. Therefore, restoring I(to,f) might be beneficial for treating HF. The coding sequence of a P2A peptide was cloned, in frame, between Kv4.3 and KChIP2.1 genes and ribosomal skipping was confirmed by Western blotting. Typical I(to,f) properties with slowed inactivation and accelerated recovery from inactivation due to the association of KChIP2.1 with Kv4.3 was seen in transfected HEK293 cells. Both bicistronic components trafficked to the plasmamembrane and in adenovirus transduced rabbit cardiomyocytes both t-tubular and sarcolemmal construct labelling appeared. The resulting current was similar to I(to,f) seen in human ventricular cardiomyocytes and was 50% blocked at ~0.8 mmol/l 4-aminopyridine and increased ~30% by 5 μmol/l NS5806 (an I(to,f) agonist). Variation in the density of the expressed I(to,f), in rabbit cardiomyocytes recapitulated typical species-dependent variations in AP morphology. Simultaneous voltage recording and intracellular Ca(2+) imaging showed that modification of phase 1 to a non-failing human phenotype improved the rate of rise and magnitude of the Ca(2+) transient. I(to,f) expression also reduced AP triangulation but did not affect I(Ca,L) and I(Na) magnitudes. This raises the possibility for a new gene-based therapeutic approach to HF based on selective phase 1 modification

    T-tubule disease:Relationship between t-tubule organization and regional contractile performance in human dilated cardiomyopathy

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    Evidence from animal models suggest that t-tubule changes may play an important role in the contractile deficit associated with heart failure. However samples are usually taken at random with no regard as to regional variability present in failing hearts which leads to uncertainty in the relationship between contractile performance and possible t-tubule derangement. Regional contraction in human hearts was measured by tagged cine MRI and model fitting. At transplant, failing hearts were biopsy sampled in identified regions and immunocytochemistry was used to label t-tubules and sarcomeric z-lines. Computer image analysis was used to assess 5 different unbiased measures of t-tubule structure/organization. In regions of failing hearts that showed good contractile performance, t-tubule organization was similar to that seen in normal hearts, with worsening structure correlating with the loss of regional contractile performance. Statistical analysis showed that t-tubule direction was most highly correlated with local contractile performance, followed by the amplitude of the sarcomeric peak in the Fourier transform of the t-tubule image. Other area based measures were less well correlated. We conclude that regional contractile performance in failing human hearts is strongly correlated with the local t-tubule organization. Cluster tree analysis with a functional definition of failing contraction strength allowed a pathological definition of ‘t-tubule disease’. The regional variability in contractile performance and cellular structure is a confounding issue for analysis of samples taken from failing human hearts, although this may be overcome with regional analysis by using tagged cMRI and biopsy mapping

    Arrhythmogenic late Ca2+sparks in failing heart cells and their control by action potential configuration

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    Sudden death in heart failure patients is a major clinical problem worldwide, but it is unclear how arrhythmogenic early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are triggered in failing heart cells. To examine EAD initiation, high-sensitivity intracellular Ca2+ measurements were combined with action potential voltage clamp techniques in a physiologically relevant heart failure model. In failing cells, the loss of Ca2+ release synchrony at the start of the action potential leads to an increase in number of microscopic intracellular Ca2+ release events (“late” Ca2+ sparks) during phase 2–3 of the action potential. These late Ca2+ sparks prolong the Ca2+ transient that activates contraction and can trigger propagating microscopic Ca2+ ripples, larger macroscopic Ca2+ waves, and EADs. Modification of the action potential to include steps to different potentials revealed the amount of current generated by these late Ca2+ sparks and their (subsequent) spatiotemporal summation into Ca2+ ripples/waves. Comparison of this current to the net current that causes action potential repolarization shows that late Ca2+ sparks provide a mechanism for EAD initiation. Computer simulations confirmed that this forms the basis of a strong oscillatory positive feedback system that can act in parallel with other purely voltage-dependent ionic mechanisms for EAD initiation. In failing heart cells, restoration of the action potential to a nonfailing phase 1 configuration improved the synchrony of excitation–contraction coupling, increased Ca2+ transient amplitude, and suppressed late Ca2+ sparks. Therapeutic control of late Ca2+ spark activity may provide an additional approach for treating heart failure and reduce the risk for sudden cardiac death