220 research outputs found

    Enhanced fault-tolerant quantum computing in dd-level systems

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    Error correcting codes protect quantum information and form the basis of fault tolerant quantum computing. Leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation require codes with an exceedingly rare property, a transverse non-Clifford gate. Codes with the desired property are presented for dd-level, qudit, systems with prime dd. The codes use n=d1n=d-1 qudits and can detect upto d/3\sim d/3 errors. We quantify the performance of these codes for one approach to quantum computation, known as magic state distillation. Unlike prior work, we find performance is always enhanced by increasing dd.Comment: Author's final copy. Changes includes correction to plot in figure

    Gaussification and entanglement distillation of continuous variable systems: a unifying picture

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    Distillation of entanglement using only Gaussian operations is an important primitive in quantum communication, quantum repeater architectures, and distributed quantum computing. Existing distillation protocols for continuous degrees of freedom are only known to converge to a Gaussian state when measurements yield precisely the vacuum outcome. In sharp contrast, non-Gaussian states can be deterministically converted into Gaussian states while preserving their second moments, albeit by usually reducing their degree of entanglement. In this work - based on a novel instance of a non-commutative central limit theorem - we introduce a picture general enough to encompass the known protocols leading to Gaussian states, and new classes of protocols including multipartite distillation. This gives the experimental option of balancing the merits of success probability against entanglement produced.Comment: 4 + 4 pages, final versio

    Distributed quantum information processing with minimal local resources

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    We present a protocol for growing graph states, the resource for one-way quantum computing, when the available entanglement mechanism is highly imperfect. The distillation protocol is frugal in its use of ancilla qubits, requiring only a single ancilla qubit when the noise is dominated by one Pauli error, and two for a general noise model. The protocol works with such scarce local resources by never post-selecting on the measurement outcomes of purification rounds. We find that such a strategy causes fidelity to follow a biased random walk, and that a target fidelity is likely to be reached more rapidly than for a comparable post-selecting protocol. An analysis is presented of how imperfect local operations limit the attainable fidelity. For example, a single Pauli error rate of 20% can be distilled down to 10\sim 10 times the imperfection in local operations.Comment: 4 pages of main paper with an additional 1 page appendix, 5 figures. Please contact me with any comment

    Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation

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    Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure non-stabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed non-stabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states outside this set may be distilled. In this Letter we show that, when resources are finitely limited, non-distillable states exist outside the stabilizer octahedron. In analogy with the bound entangled states, which arise in entanglement theory, we call such states bound states for magic state distillation.Comment: Published version. This paper builds on a theorem proven in "On the Structure of Protocols for Magic State Distillation", arXiv:0908.0838. These two papers jointly form the content of a talk entitled "Neither Magical nor Classical?", which was presented at TQC 2009, Waterlo

    Continuous-variable entanglement distillation and non-commutative central limit theorems

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    Entanglement distillation transforms weakly entangled noisy states into highly entangled states, a primitive to be used in quantum repeater schemes and other protocols designed for quantum communication and key distribution. In this work, we present a comprehensive framework for continuous-variable entanglement distillation schemes that convert noisy non-Gaussian states into Gaussian ones in many iterations of the protocol. Instances of these protocols include (a) the recursive-Gaussifier protocol, (b) the temporally-reordered recursive-Gaussifier protocol, and (c) the pumping-Gaussifier protocol. The flexibility of these protocols give rise to several beneficial trade-offs related to success probabilities or memory requirements, which that can be adjusted to reflect experimental demands. Despite these protocols involving measurements, we relate the convergence in this protocols to new instances of non-commutative central limit theorems, in a formalism that we lay out in great detail. Implications of the findings for quantum repeater schemes are discussed.Comment: published versio

    Measurement based entanglement under conditions of extreme photon loss

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    The act of measuring optical emissions from two remote qubits can entangle them. By demanding that a photon from each qubit reaches the detectors, one can ensure than no photon was lost. But the failure rate then rises quadratically with loss probability. In [1] this resulted in 30 successes per billion attempts. We describe a means to exploit the low grade entanglement heralded by the detection of a lone photon: A subsequent perfect operation is quickly achieved by consuming this noisy resource. We require only two qubits per node, and can tolerate both path length variation and loss asymmetry. The impact of photon loss upon the failure rate is then linear; realistic high-loss devices can gain orders of magnitude in performance and thus support QIP.Comment: Contains an extension of the protocol that makes it robust against asymmetries in path length and photon los