69,714 research outputs found

    Computer Simulation of Chute Flows of Granular Materials

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    The purpose of the present paper is to present results from computer simulations of the flow of granular materials down inclined chutes or channels and to compare the results of these calculations with existing experimental measurements of velocity, solid fraction and mass flow rate profiles

    Intermittent many-body dynamics at equilibrium

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    The equilibrium value of an observable defines a manifold in the phase space of an ergodic and equipartitioned many-body system. A typical trajectory pierces that manifold infinitely often as time goes to infinity. We use these piercings to measure both the relaxation time of the lowest frequency eigenmode of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain, as well as the fluctuations of the subsequent dynamics in equilibrium. The dynamics in equilibrium is characterized by a power-law distribution of excursion times far off equilibrium, with diverging variance. Long excursions arise from sticky dynamics close to q-breathers localized in normal mode space. Measuring the exponent allows one to predict the transition into nonergodic dynamics. We generalize our method to Klein-Gordon lattices where the sticky dynamics is due to discrete breathers localized in real space.We thank P. Jeszinszki and I. Vakulchyk for helpful discussions on computational aspects. The authors acknowledge financial support from IBS (Project Code No. IBS-R024-D1). (IBS-R024-D1 - IBS)Published versio

    Black holes and wormholes in AdS branes

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    In this work we have derived a class of geometries which describe black holes and wormholes in Randall-Sundrum-type brane models, focusing mainly on asymptotically anti-de Sitter backgrounds. We show that by continuously deforming the usual four dimensional vacuum background, a specific family of solutions is obtained. Maximal extensions of the solutions are presented, and their causal structures are discussed.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures. Published version in Physical Review

    A modular radiative transfer program for gas filter correlation radiometry

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    The fundamentals of a computer program, simulated monochromatic atmospheric radiative transfer (SMART), which calculates atmospheric path transmission, solar radiation, and thermal radiation in the 4.6 micrometer spectral region, are described. A brief outline of atmospheric absorption properties and line by line transmission calculations is explained in conjunction with an outline of the SMART computational procedures. Program flexibility is demonstrated by simulating the response of a gas filter correlation radiometer as one example of an atmospheric infrared sensor. Program limitations, input data requirements, program listing, and comparison of SMART transmission calculations are presented

    Data reduction analysis and application technique development for atmospheric trace gas constituents derived from remote sensors on satellite or airborne platforms

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    The applicability of the gas filter correlation radiometer (GFCR) to the measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide gas was investigated. An assessment of the GFRC measurement system to a regional measurement program was conducted through extensive aircraft flight-testing of several versions of the GFRC. Investigative work in the following areas is described: flight test planning and coordination, acquisition of verifying CO measurements, determination and acquisition of supporting meteorological data requirements, and development of supporting computational software

    The latent process decomposition of cDNA microarray data sets

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    We present a new computational technique (a software implementation, data sets, and supplementary information are available at http://www.enm.bris.ac.uk/lpd/) which enables the probabilistic analysis of cDNA microarray data and we demonstrate its effectiveness in identifying features of biomedical importance. A hierarchical Bayesian model, called latent process decomposition (LPD), is introduced in which each sample in the data set is represented as a combinatorial mixture over a finite set of latent processes, which are expected to correspond to biological processes. Parameters in the model are estimated using efficient variational methods. This type of probabilistic model is most appropriate for the interpretation of measurement data generated by cDNA microarray technology. For determining informative substructure in such data sets, the proposed model has several important advantages over the standard use of dendrograms. First, the ability to objectively assess the optimal number of sample clusters. Second, the ability to represent samples and gene expression levels using a common set of latent variables (dendrograms cluster samples and gene expression values separately which amounts to two distinct reduced space representations). Third, in contrast to standard cluster models, observations are not assigned to a single cluster and, thus, for example, gene expression levels are modeled via combinations of the latent processes identified by the algorithm. We show this new method compares favorably with alternative cluster analysis methods. To illustrate its potential, we apply the proposed technique to several microarray data sets for cancer. For these data sets it successfully decomposes the data into known subtypes and indicates possible further taxonomic subdivision in addition to highlighting, in a wholly unsupervised manner, the importance of certain genes which are known to be medically significant. To illustrate its wider applicability, we also illustrate its performance on a microarray data set for yeast

    Revisiting the 1954 Suspension Experiments of R. A.Bagnold

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    In 1954 R. A. Bagnold published his seminal findings on the rheological properties of a liquid-solid suspension. Although this work has been cited extensively over the last fifty years, there has not been a critical review of the experiments. The purpose of this study is to examine the work and to suggest an alternative reason for the experimental findings. The concentric cylinder rheometer was designed to measure simultaneously the shear and normal forces for a wide range of solid concentrations, fluid viscosities and shear rates. As presented by Bagnold, the analysis and experiments demonstrated that the shear and normal forces depended linearly on the shear rate in the 'macroviscous' regime; as the grain-to-grain interactions increased in the 'grain-inertia' regime, the stresses depended on the square of the shear rate and were independent of the fluid viscosity. These results, however, appear to be dictated by the design of the experimental facility. In Bagnold's experiments, the height (h) of the rheometer was relatively short compared to the spacing (t) between the rotating outer and stationary inner cylinder (h/t=4.6). Since the top and bottom end plates rotated with the outer cylinder, the flow contained two axisymmetric counter-rotating cells in which flow moved outward along the end plates and inward through the central region of the annulus. At higher Reynolds numbers, these cells contributed significantly to the measured torque, as demonstrated by comparing Bagnold's pure-fluid measurements with studies on laminar-to-turbulent transitions that pre-date the 1954 study. By accounting for the torque along the end walls, Bagnold's shear stress measurements can be estimated by modelling the liquid-solid mixture as a Newtonian fluid with a corrected viscosity that depends on the solids concentration. An analysis of the normal stress measurements was problematic because the gross measurements were not reported and could not be obtained

    Derivation of SPH equations in a moving referential coordinate system

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    The conventional SPH method uses kernel interpolation to derive the spatial semi-discretisation of the governing equations. These equations, derived using a straight application of the kernel interpolation method, are not used in practice. Instead the equations, commonly used in SPH codes, are heuristically modified to enforce symmetry and local conservation properties. This paper revisits the process of deriving these semi-discrete SPH equations. It is shown that by using the assumption of a moving referential coordinate system and moving control volume, instead of the fixed referential coordinate system and fixed control volume used in the conventional SPH method, a set of new semi- discrete equations can be rigorously derived. The new forms of semi-discrete equations are similar to the SPH equations used in practice. It is shown through numerical examples that the new rigorously derived equations give similar results to those obtained using the conventional SPH equations

    eHealth interventions for people with chronic kidney disease

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    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: This review aims to look at the benefits and harms of using eHealth interventions in the CKD population