15,942 research outputs found

    Solar models in relation to terrestrial climatic variations

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    The possibility is discussed of occasional larger changes in the state of the sun, lasting for some millions of years, which might be responsible for producing more drastic changes in earth's climate, called ice ages

    The early evolution of the solar system

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    The problems of relating collapse conditions in an interstellar cloud to a model of the primitive solar nebula are discussed. In such a nebula there is a radial force balance between gravity, the pressure gradient, and centrifugal forces due to the rotation. Approximate values are given for the combinations of temperature and density throughout the nebula, from a maximum of about 2000 K near the center to less than 200 K in the outer portion. These conditions are based upon the compression adiabats in the terminal stages of the collapse of an interstellar cloud. One general conclusion, of great importance for accumulation of bodies within the solar system, is that interstellar grains should not be completely evaporated at distances in the nebula beyond about one or more astronomical units

    Physics of Nonthermal Radio Sources

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    On December 3 and 4, 1962, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, an office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, was host to an international group of astronomers and physicists who met to discuss the physics of nonthermal radio sources. This was the third in a continuing series of interdisciplinary meetings held at the Institute on topics which have a special bearing on the main lines of inquiry in the space program. The conference was organized by G. R. Burbidge of the University of California at San Diego and by L. Woltjer, then of the University of Leiden but temporarily at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and now of Columbia University

    Solar spin down and neutrino fluxes

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    Effects of core spin-down process on neutrino flux in solar evolution theor

    Effects of a giant impact on Uranus

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    The effects of a giant impact on Uranus with respect to the axis tilt of Uranus and its satellites are discussed. The simulations of possible giant impacts were carried out using Cray supercomputers. The technique used is called smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH). In this technique, the material in the proto-Uranus planet and in the impactor is divided into a large number of particles which can overlap one another so that local averages over these particles determine density and pressure in the problem, and the particles themselves have their own temperatures and internal energies. During the course of the simulation, these particles move around under the influence of the forces acting on them: gravity and pressure gradients. The results of model simulations are presented

    Tidal disruption of inviscid protoplanets

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    Roche showed that equilibrium is impossible for a small fluid body synchronously orbiting a primary within a critical radius now termed the Roche limit. Tidal disruption of orbitally unbound bodies is a potentially important process for planetary formation through collisional accumulation, because the area of the Roche limit is considerably larger then the physical cross section of a protoplanet. Several previous studies were made of dynamical tidal disruption and different models of disruption were proposed. Because of the limitation of these analytical models, we have used a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code to model the tidal disruption process. The code is basically the same as the one used to model giant impacts; we simply choose impact parameters large enough to avoid collisions. The primary and secondary both have iron cores and silicate mantles, and are initially isothermal at a molten temperature. The conclusions based on the analytical and numerical models are summarized

    The instability of stellar structures intermediate between white dwarfs and neutron stars

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    Instability of stellar structures intermediate between dwarfs and neutron star

    Guadalupe pluton–Mariposa Formation age relationships in the southern Sierran Foothills: Onset of Mesozoic subduction in northern California?

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    We report a new 153 ± 2 Ma SIMS U-Pb date for zircons from the hypabyssal Guadalupe pluton which crosscuts and contact metamorphoses upper crustal Mariposa slates in the southern Sierra. A ~950 m thick section of dark metashales lies below sandstones from which clastic zircons were analyzed at 152 ± 2 Ma. Assuming a compacted depositional rate of ~120 m/Myr, accumulation of Mariposa volcanogenic sediments, which overlie previously stranded Middle Jurassic and older ophiolite + chert-argillite belts in the Sierran Foothills, began no later than ~160 Ma. Correlative Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian strata of the Galice Formation occupy a similar position in the Klamath Mountains. We speculate that the Late Jurassic was a time of transition from (1) a mid-Paleozoic–Middle Jurassic interval of mainly but not exclusively strike-slip and episodic docking of oceanic terranes; (2) to transpressive plate underflow, producing calcalkaline igneous arc rocks ± outboard blueschists at ~170–150 Ma, whose erosion promoted accumulation of the Mariposa-Galice overlap strata; (3) continued transpressive underflow attending ~200 km left-lateral displacement of the Klamath salient relative to the Sierran arc at ~150–140 Ma and development of the apparent polar wander path cusps for North and South America; and (4) then nearly orthogonal mid and Late Cretaceous convergence commencing at ~125–120 Ma, during reversal in tangential motion of the Pacific plate. After ~120 Ma, nearly head-on subduction involving minor dextral transpression gave rise to voluminous continent-building juvenile and recycled magmas of the Sierran arc, providing the erosional debris to the Great Valley fore arc and Franciscan trench

    Terrestrial Planet Formation I. The Transition from Oligarchic Growth to Chaotic Growth

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    We use a hybrid, multiannulus, n-body-coagulation code to investigate the growth of km-sized planetesimals at 0.4-2 AU around a solar-type star. After a short runaway growth phase, protoplanets with masses of roughly 10^26 g and larger form throughout the grid. When (i) the mass in these `oligarchs' is roughly comparable to the mass in planetesimals and (ii) the surface density in oligarchs exceeds 2-3 g/sq cm at 1 AU, strong dynamical interactions among oligarchs produce a high merger rate which leads to the formation of several terrestrial planets. In disks with lower surface density, milder interactions produce several lower mass planets. In all disks, the planet formation timescale is roughly 10-100 Myr, similar to estimates derived from the cratering record and radiometric data.Comment: Astronomical Journal, accepted; 22 pages + 15 figures in ps format; eps figures at http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~kenyon/dl/ revised version clarifies evolution and justifies choice of promotion masse
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