1,647 research outputs found

    Thermodynamics of a classical ideal gas at arbitrary temperatures

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    We propose a fundamental relation for a classical ideal gas that is valid at all temperatures with remarkable accuracy. All thermodynamical properties of classical ideal gases can be deduced from this relation at arbitrary temperature.Comment: 7 pages, Latex, with 2 additional files for pslatex figures. Expression for entropy added in the 2nd versio

    Optimal energy quanta to current conversion

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    We present a microscopic discussion of a nano-sized structure which uses the quantization of energy levels and the physics of single charge Coulomb interaction to achieve an optimal conversion of heat flow to directed current. In our structure the quantization of energy levels and the Coulomb blockade lead to the transfer of quantized packets of energy from a hot source into an electric conductor to which it is capacitively coupled. The fluctuation generated transfer of a single energy quantum translates into the directed motion of a single electron. Thus in our structure the ratio of the charge current to the heat current is determined by the ratio of the charge quantum to the energy quantum. An important novel aspect of our approach is that the direction of energy flow and the direction of electron motion are decoupled.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figure

    Thermodynamic consistency of liquid-gas lattice Boltzmann simulations

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    Lattice Boltzmann simulations have been very successful in simulating liquid-gas and other multi-phase fluid systems. However, the underlying second order analysis of the equation of motion has long been known to be insufficient to consistently derive the fourth order terms that are necessary to represent an extended interface. These same terms are also responsible for thermodynamic consistency, i.e. to obtain a true equilibrium solution with both a constant chemical potential and a constant pressure. In this article we present an equilibrium analysis of non-ideal lattice Boltzmann methods of sufficient order to identify those higher order terms that lead to a lack of thermodynamic consistency. We then introduce a thermodynamically consistent forcing method.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figure

    Emergence of robustness against noise: A structural phase transition in evolved models of gene regulatory networks

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    We investigate the evolution of Boolean networks subject to a selective pressure which favors robustness against noise, as a model of evolved genetic regulatory systems. By mapping the evolutionary process into a statistical ensemble and minimizing its associated free energy, we find the structural properties which emerge as the selective pressure is increased and identify a phase transition from a random topology to a "segregated core" structure, where a smaller and more densely connected subset of the nodes is responsible for most of the regulation in the network. This segregated structure is very similar qualitatively to what is found in gene regulatory networks, where only a much smaller subset of genes --- those responsible for transcription factors --- is responsible for global regulation. We obtain the full phase diagram of the evolutionary process as a function of selective pressure and the average number of inputs per node. We compare the theoretical predictions with Monte Carlo simulations of evolved networks and with empirical data for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figure

    Coherence properties of the microcavity polariton condensate

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    A theoretical model is presented which explains the dominant decoherence process in a microcavity polariton condensate. The mechanism which is invoked is the effect of self-phase modulation, whereby interactions transform polariton number fluctuations into random energy variations. The model shows that the phase coherence decay, g1(t), has a Kubo form, which can be Gaussian or exponential, depending on whether the number fluctuations are slow or fast. This fluctuation rate also determines the decay time of the intensity correlation function, g2(t), so it can be directly determined experimentally. The model explains recent experimental measurements of a relatively fast Gaussian decay for g1(t), but also predicts a regime, further above threshold, where the decay is much slower.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figur

    Measuring thermodynamic length

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    Thermodynamic length is a metric distance between equilibrium thermodynamic states. Among other interesting properties, this metric asymptotically bounds the dissipation induced by a finite time transformation of a thermodynamic system. It is also connected to the Jensen-Shannon divergence, Fisher information and Rao's entropy differential metric. Therefore, thermodynamic length is of central interest in understanding matter out-of-equilibrium. In this paper, we will consider how to define thermodynamic length for a small system described by equilibrium statistical mechanics and how to measure thermodynamic length within a computer simulation. Surprisingly, Bennett's classic acceptance ratio method for measuring free energy differences also measures thermodynamic length.Comment: 4 pages; Typos correcte

    Generalized Phase Rules

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    For a multi-component system, general formulas are derived for the dimension of a coexisting region in the phase diagram in various state spaces.Comment: In the revised manuscript, physical meanings of D's are explained by adding three figures. 10 pages, 3 figure

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics of particle-stabilized thin liquid films

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    Our recent quasi-two-dimensional thermodynamic description of thin-liquid films stabilized by colloidal particles is generalized to describe nonuniform equilibrium states of films in external potentials and nonequilibrium transport processes produced in the film by gradients of thermodynamic forces. Using a Monte--Carlo simulation method, we have determined equilibrium equations of state for a film stabilized by a suspension of hard spheres. Employing a multipolar-expansion method combined with a flow-reflection technique, we have also evaluated the short-time film-viscosity coefficients and collective particle mobility.Comment: 16 pages, 10 figure

    Generalized Jarzynski Equality under Nonequilibrium Feedback Control

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    The Jarzynski equality is generalized to situations in which nonequilibrium systems are subject to a feedback control. The new terms that arise as a consequence of the feedback describe the mutual information content obtained by measurement and the efficacy of the feedback control. Our results lead to a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem that reflects the readout information, and can be experimentally tested using small thermodynamic systems. We illustrate our general results by an introducing "information ratchet," which can transport a Brownian particle in one direction and extract a positive work from the particle

    Mean-field calculation of critical parameters and log-periodic characterization of an aperiodic-modulated model

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    We employ a mean-field approximation to study the Ising model with aperiodic modulation of its interactions in one spatial direction. Two different values for the exchange constant, JAJ_A and JBJ_B, are present, according to the Fibonacci sequence. We calculated the pseudo-critical temperatures for finite systems and extrapolate them to the thermodynamic limit. We explicitly obtain the exponents β\beta, δ\delta, and γ\gamma and, from the usual scaling relations for anisotropic models at the upper critical dimension (assumed to be 4 for the model we treat), we calculate α\alpha, ν\nu, ν//\nu_{//}, η\eta, and η//\eta_{//}. Within the framework of a renormalization-group approach, the Fibonacci sequence is a marginal one and we obtain exponents which depend on the ratio rJB/JAr \equiv J_B/J_A, as expected. But the scaling relation γ=β(δ1)\gamma = \beta (\delta -1) is obeyed for all values of rr we studied. We characterize some thermodynamic functions as log-periodic functions of their arguments, as expected for aperiodic-modulated models, and obtain precise values for the exponents from this characterization.Comment: 17 pages, including 9 figures, to appear in Phys. Rev.
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