26 research outputs found

    Indoor air quality monitoring and management in hospitality: an overarching framework

    Get PDF
    Purpose This study aims to provide a comprehensive framework for the study of indoor air quality (IAQ) in hospitality premises. The goal is to identify the drivers of air pollution, both at the exogenous and endogenous level, to generate insights for facility managers. Design/methodology/approach The complexity of hospitality premises requires an integrated approach to properly investigate IAQ. The authors develop an overarching framework encompassing a monitoring method, based on real-time sensors, a technological standard and a set of statistical analyses for the assessment of both IAQ performance and drivers, based on correlation analyses, analysis of variance and multivariate regressions. Findings The findings suggest that the main drivers of IAQ differ depending on the area monitored: areas in contact with the outdoors or with high ventilation rates, such as halls, are affected by outdoor air quality more than guestrooms or fitness areas, where human activities are the main sources of contamination. Research limitations/implications The results suggest that the integration of IAQ indicators into control dashboards would support management decisions, both in defining protocols to support resilience of the sector in a postpandemic world and in directing investments on the premises. This would also address guests’ pressing demands for a broader approach to cleanliness and safety and support their satisfaction and intention to return. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study developing a comprehensive framework to systematically address IAQ and its drivers, based on a standard and real-time monitoring. The framework has been applied across the longest period of monitoring for a hospitality premise thus far and over an entire hotel facility

    Analyse de la lecture de charge pour les Chambres à Projection Temporelle à Argon Liquide pour la physique du neutrino et astroparticules

    No full text
    This is an important period for High Energy Physics: many recent results, including the Higgs discovery and its characterization, confirm the Standard Model. A crucial point for the future of Particle Physics is the study of neutrino masses and mixing representing the first established evidence of physics beyond the SM. Since 2011, the large value of the ?13 mixing angle opened the way to the investigation of CP violation in the neutrino sector. A next generation long baseline neutrino experiment (DUNE) has unprecedented potential to precisely measure the neutrino oscillation parameters, determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and has a very good chance to discover evidence for CP violation in the leptonic sector. The large underground neutrino detectors needed for this task will also address the search for proton decay and the observation of supernovae neutrinos. Giant Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPCs) will be employed as neutrino targets and detectors. They provide bubble-chamber quality imaging coupled to excellent energy resolution and particles identification capabilities. Neutrino interactions produce secondary particles, which ionize the liquid argon. The ionization electrons drift for long distances along a uniform electric field until they reach finely segmented and instrumented anodes, producing electrical signals that are used for 3D imaging and analysis of the primary interactions. The dual-phase readout technique foresees the amplification of the ionization signal in avalanches occurring in the gas phase above the liquid argon level. This technique further enhances the performance of the LAr TPC by increasing its signal to noise ratio. The subject of thesis is the ionization charge reconstruction and analysis in the dual-phase LAr TPC: the ionization charges measurement provides information about the kinetic energy of secondary charged particles produced in neutrino interactions. In this way, it is possible to reconstruct the incoming neutrino energy, identify and reject electromagnetic shower generated by photons from pi0 decay and perform particles identification from the measurement of the specific ionization losses.The measurement of the ionization implies a detailed knowledge of the detector response and of the reconstruction algorithm. In order to achieve this knowledge a detailed analysis of the simulated energy losses has been performed by studying the differences between the theoretical knowledge and the simulationUn point crucial pour l'avenir de la Physique de Particules est repr√©sent√© par la mesure de la masse et des param√®tres qui gouvernent l'oscillation du neutrino, qui repr√©sentent la preuve de Physique au-del√† du Model Standard. Depuis 2011, la valeur √©lev√©e de l'angle de m√©lange őł13 a ouvert la voie √† l'√©tude sur la violation de sym√©trie CP dans le secteur de neutrinos. La nouvelle d'exp√©rience DUNE (Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment) a un potentiel sans pr√©c√©dent pour effectuer une mesure tr√®s pr√©cise des param√®tres d'oscillation de neutrinos. Les grands d√©tecteurs souterrains n√©cessaires pour ces mesures sont √©galement un milieu id√©al pour la recherche sur la d√©sint√©gration du proton et sur la d√©tection de neutrinos provenant des supernov√¶.Les d√©tecteurs utilis√©s pour ces exp√©riences sont des Chambres √† Projection Temporelle (TPC) dont la cible, tr√®s massive, est constitu√©e d'Argon liquide. Ce type de d√©tecteur fournit une tr√®s bonne r√©solution de l'image reconstruite, une excellente r√©solution en √©nergie et la possibilit√© d'identifier les particules. Les interactions de neutrino produisent des particules secondaires qui ionisent l'Argon liquide. Les √©lectrons produits par ionisation d√©rivent sur de longues distances, sous l'effet d'un champ √©lectrique uniforme, jusqu'√† rejoindre l‚Äėanode, √©quip√© pour la d√©tection de la charge. Un signal √©lectrique est alors produit et est utilis√© pour la reconstruction 3D de l'interaction primaire. La TPC en double phase liquide-gaz permet l'amplification du signal d'ionisation par des avalanches qui se produisent dans la phase gazeuse, au-dessus du niveau de l'Argon liquide. Cette technique am√©liore les performances de TPC en augmentant son rapport signal-bruit.Le sujet de cette th√®se est la reconstruction et l'analyse de la charge de ionisation dans une TPC √† Argon liquide : la mesure de la charge d√©pos√©e par ionisation fournit des informations sur l'√©nergie cin√©tique des particules charg√©es secondaires produites lors de l'interaction de neutrino. De cette mani√®re, il est possible de reconstruire l'√©nergie du neutrino entrant, de reconna√ģtre et d'exclure les gerbes √©lectromagn√©tiques produites par la d√©sint√©gration du ŌÄ0, puis d'effectuer l'indentification des particules √† partir de la mesure des pertes d'√©nergie par ionisation.La mesure de l'ionisation implique une connaissance approfondie de la r√©ponse du d√©tecteur et de l'algorithme de reconstruction. Afin d'atteindre cette connaissance nous avons effectu√© une analyse d√©taill√©e des pertes d'√©nergie simul√©e en √©tudiant les divergences entre les connaissances th√©oriques et la simulation. Ensuite, la simulation de la r√©ponse du d√©tecteur a √©t√© √©tudi√©e, en examinant les effets qui se produisent au cours de la d√©rive des charges et les effets li√©s √† la r√©ponse de l'instrumentation √©lectronique. Ces effets syst√©matiques qui affectent l'exactitude de l'algorithme de reconstruction sont alors caract√©ris√©s par rapport √† la g√©n√©ration de Monte-Carlo.Par la suite, nous montrons comment il est possible d'effectuer la rejection du ŌÄ0 en √©tudiant les pertes d'√©nergie. En mesurant les pertes par ionisation au d√©but d'une gerbe √©lectromagn√©tique, il est possible de comprendre si elle a √©t√© produite par un √©lectron ou par un photon. Cela permet d'exclure le bruit dans la d√©tection des produits d'interaction du neutrino √©lectronique fondamental pour la recherche de la violation de CP.Par l'√©chantillonnage de la trajectoire d'une particule charg√©e et en mesurant ses pertes d'√©nergie, il est possible d'identifier sa nature. Une TPC √† Argon liquide est √©galement un milieu id√©al pour la recherche de la d√©sint√©gration du proton, en particulier en regardant certaines cha√ģnes de d√©sint√©gration exclusives, comme p K + őĹ. Dans cette th√®se, nous montrons ainsi comment il est possible d'identifier des particules √† partir de la mesure des pertes d'√©nergie, et plus abordons plus pr√©cis√©ment l'identification des kaons charg√©

    Ricerca del bosone di Higgs in quarks bb nel canale di produzione Vector Boson Fusion con l'esperimento CMS a LHC

    No full text
    Il Modello Standard (MS) è la teoria quantistica dei campi che fino ad oggi è riuscita a spiegare nel miglior modo possibile la fenomenologia delle interazioni fondamentali e ad identificare i suoi costituenti elementari, soprattutto grazie alle conferme degli esperimenti di Fisica delle Alte Energie. Il risultato del MS è una formulazione teorica di tre delle quattro forze fondamentali: la forza elettromagnetica, quella debole e quella forte. L'interazione gravitazionale risulta essere trascurabile a livello particellare e non viene descritta dal modello. All'interno del MS riveste particolare importanza la presenza del bosone di Higgs: tale particella risulta come conseguenza della rottura spontanea della simmetria elettrodebole, che, tramite il meccanismo di Higgs, assegna massa alle particelle. Scopo di questo lavoro di tesi è stato quello di studiare presso l'esperimento CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) a LHC (Large Hadron Collider) il processo di produzione Vector Boson Fusion (VBF) del bosone di Higgs con successivo decadimento in quarks bb. I recenti risultati prodotti da LHC mostrano un eccesso di eventi rispetto a quelli attesi dal fondo attorno a un valore di massa del bosone di Higgs di 125 GeV/c^2. Risulta quindi molto importante lo studio del canale di produzione VBF la cui sezione d'urto in un intervallo di massa 115 GeV/c^2 bb in quell'intervallo di massa ha un elevato branching ratio, circa il 60%. Uno dei maggiori svantaggi del processo di produzione VBF è che gli eventi di background (composto prevalentemente da eventi di QCD) sono diversi ordini di grandezza superiori rispetto agli eventi di segnale. Per questa ragione, l'analisi della produzione del bosone di Higgs tramite VBF non è fino ad ora stata sviluppata agli esperimenti LHC nel canale di decadimento H ->bb. Per un analisi di questo tipo i tagli lineari non sono sufficienti e diventa necessario ricorrere alla MultiVariate Analysis (MVA): questo strumento consente di sfruttare correlazioni non lineari tra variabili diverse per separare gli eventi di segnale da quelli di fondo in un dato campione. In questo lavoro di tesi si è studiato, tramite l'uso della MVA, quali possano essere i risultati potenziali dell'analisi del processo VBF. Dapprima si mostra come l'applicazione di tagli lineari appositamente scelti non è in grado di evidenziare eccessi di eventi rispetto al fondo. Successivamente, si sfrutta la MVA per cercare nuove variabili discriminanti: analizzando gli eventi con due diversi metodi, il Boost Decision Tree (BDT) e la MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP), si ottiene un classificatore y per ogni metodo usato, in base al quale si può sapere quanto ciascun evento può essere considerato segnale o quanto può essere considerato background. La MVA indica anche il valore ottimale y^{cut} a cui applicare il taglio per poter separare al meglio il segnale dal background; il valore di ycuty^{cut} è il valore ottenuto ottimizzando la significatività S/\sqrt{S+B}. In questa analisi sono state studiate le prestazione della MVA utilizzando diversi insiemi di informazioni iniziali e, in seguito, sono stati analizzati gli effetti dell'applicazione dei tagli sui classificatori

    The Challenge of Indoor Air Quality Management: A Case Study in the Hospitality Industry at the Time of the Pandemic

    No full text
    Air quality management represents a reason for concern in indoor environments, especially now that the COVID-19 pandemic has shown how microbial aerosols pose a threat to human health, requiring proper monitoring. This is particularly true in public and working environments, where the turnover of occupants is high. The hospitality sector, in particular, has been severely affected by limitations related to emergency containment, and it needs to redefine its operations in the perspective of a ‚Äúnew normal‚ÄĚ in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering the necessity to provide consistent information about indoor air quality, promote adequate management and increase safety, we developed a case study in cooperation with a major hotel in Turin. A sensing network has been implemented based on corporate-grade monitoring devices, compliant with the RESET standards, recently proposed and applied here to the hospitality sector for the first time. The network is able to detect the concentration of gaseous contaminants and fine particulate matter in semi-continuous mode. The study involved areas of the hotel with different purposes, such as guestrooms, hall, kitchen, restaurant and fitness center. Several valuable insights emerged in support of air quality management and pathways for future research can be outlined, based on the innovative dataset developed

    The Mu2e calorimeter: Quality assurance of production crystals and SiPMs

    No full text
    The Mu2e calorimeter is composed of two disks each containing 1348 pure CsI crystals, each crystal read out by two arrays of 6x6 mm2 monolithic SiPMs. The experimental requirements have been translated in a series of technical specifications for both crystals and SiPMs. Quality assurance tests, on first crystal and then SiPM production batches, confirm the performances of preproduction samples previously assembled in a calorimeter prototype and tested with an electron beam. The production yield is sufficient to allow the construction of a calorimeter of the required quality in the expected times

    DUNE Offline Computing Conceptual Design Report

    No full text
    International audienceThis document describes Offline Software and Computing for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) experiment, in particular, the conceptual design of the offline computing needed to accomplish its physics goals. Our emphasis in this document is the development of the computing infrastructure needed to acquire, catalog, reconstruct, simulate and analyze the data from the DUNE experiment and its prototypes. In this effort, we concentrate on developing the tools and systems thatfacilitate the development and deployment of advanced algorithms. Rather than prescribing particular algorithms, our goal is to provide resources that are flexible and accessible enough to support creative software solutions as HEP computing evolves and to provide computing that achieves the physics goals of the DUNE experiment

    DUNE Offline Computing Conceptual Design Report

    No full text
    This document describes Offline Software and Computing for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) experiment, in particular, the conceptual design of the offline computing needed to accomplish its physics goals. Our emphasis in this document is the development of the computing infrastructure needed to acquire, catalog, reconstruct, simulate and analyze the data from the DUNE experiment and its prototypes. In this effort, we concentrate on developing the tools and systems thatfacilitate the development and deployment of advanced algorithms. Rather than prescribing particular algorithms, our goal is to provide resources that are flexible and accessible enough to support creative software solutions as HEP computing evolves and to provide computing that achieves the physics goals of the DUNE experiment

    Reconstruction of interactions in the ProtoDUNE-SP detector with Pandora