32 research outputs found

    MEI Kodierung der frühesten Notation in linienlosen Neumen

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    Das Optical Neume Recognition Project (ONRP) hat die digitale Kodierung von musikalischen Notationszeichen aus dem Jahr um 1000 zum Ziel – ein ambitioniertes Vorhaben, das die Projektmitglieder veranlasste, verschiedenste methodische Ansätze zu evaluieren. Die Optical Music Recognition-Software soll eine linienlose Notation aus einem der ältesten erhaltenen Quellen mit Notationszeichen, dem Antiphonar Hartker aus der Benediktinerabtei St. Gallen (Schweiz), welches heute in zwei Bänden in der Stiftsbibliothek in St. Gallen aufbewahrt wird, erfassen. Aufgrund der handgeschriebenen, linienlosen Notation stellt dieser Gregorianische Gesang den Forscher vor viele Herausforderungen. Das Werk umfasst über 300 verschiedene Neumenzeichen und ihre Notation, die mit Hilfe der Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) erfasst und beschrieben werden sollen. Der folgende Artikel beschreibt den Prozess der Adaptierung, um die MEI auf die Notation von Neumen ohne Notenlinien anzuwenden. Beschrieben werden Eigenschaften der Neumennotation, um zu verdeutlichen, wo die Herausforderungen dieser Arbeit liegen sowie die Funktionsweise des Classifiers, einer Art digitalen Neumenwörterbuchs

    Statistics of various traits related to salt tolerance with 150 mM NaCl (Salt stress treatment) or 0 mM NaCl (Control) in two-leaf seedling in cotton cultivars.

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    <p>Statistics of various traits related to salt tolerance with 150 mM NaCl (Salt stress treatment) or 0 mM NaCl (Control) in two-leaf seedling in cotton cultivars.</p

    Comparison of <i>AOCs</i> expression in XinWX and XinFLM.

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    <p>Ovules at -1, 0 and 1 DPA are shown. Significant differences at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels are represented by * and **, respectively. Error bars indicate ± SD. The expression level was derived from triplicate experiments. Three biological replicates were used for calculation.</p

    <i>AOCs</i> expression in different tissues and organs in TM-1.

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    <p>R, S, L, Pe, A, -3d, -1d, 0d, 1d, 5d, 10d, 20d, and 25d indicate root, stem, leaf, petal, anther, -3, -1, 0, 1 and 3 DPA ovules and 5, 10, 20 and 25 DPA fibers, respectively. Significant differences compared with the expression in root tissue at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels are represented by * and **, respectively. Error bars indicate ± SD of triplicate experiments. Three biological replicates were used for calculation.</p

    Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Jasmonic Acid-Associated Metabolism Related to Cotton Fiber Initiation

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    <div><p>Analysis of mutants and gene expression patterns provides a powerful approach for investigating genes involved in key stages of plant fiber development. In this study, lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM with a single genetic locus difference for lint were used to identify differentially expressed genes. Scanning electron microscopy showed fiber initiation in XinFLM at 0 days post anthesis (DPA). Fiber transcriptional profiling of the lines at three initiation developmental stages (-1, 0, 1 DPA) was performed using an oligonucleotide microarray. Loop comparisons of the differentially expressed genes within and between the lines was carried out, and functional classification and enrichment analysis showed that gene expression patterns during fiber initiation were heavily associated with hormone metabolism, transcription factor regulation, lipid transport, and asparagine biosynthetic processes, as previously reported. Further, four members of the allene-oxide cyclase (AOC) family that function in jasmonate biosynthesis were parallel up-regulation in fiber initiation, especially at -1 DPA, compared to other tissues and organs in linted-fuzzed TM-1. Real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in different fiber mutant lines revealed that <i>AOCs</i> were up-regulated higher at -1 DPA in lintless-fuzzless than that in linted-fuzzless and linted-fuzzed materials, and transcription of the <i>AOCs</i> was increased under jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Expression analysis of JA biosynthesis-associated genes between XinWX and XinFLM showed that they were up-regulated during fiber initiation in the fuzzless-lintless mutant. Taken together, jasmonic acid-associated metabolism was related to cotton fiber initiation. Parallel up-regulation of <i>AOCs</i> expression may be important for normal fiber initiation development, while overproduction of <i>AOCs</i> might disrupt normal fiber development.</p></div

    Differentially expressed genes involved in JA biosynthesis and signal transduction.

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    <p>Mixtures of ovules and fibers at -1, 0, and 1 DPA are shown in x-axis. Error bars indicate ± SD. Significant differences at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels are represented by * and **, respectively. The expression level was derived from triplicate experiments. Three biological replicates were used for calculation.</p

    Catalog of specific GO terms statistically over-represented during fiber initiation stages of XinWX and XinFLM.

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    <p>NA, no result</p><p>FDR, false discovery rate.</p><p>Catalog of specific GO terms statistically over-represented during fiber initiation stages of XinWX and XinFLM.</p

    Population structure analysis in 304 cotton cultivars/accessions.

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    <p>(A) The most likely number of clusters (K) by LnP(D) analysis; (B) The most likely number of clusters (K) by ΔK analysis; (C) Population structure in 304 cotton cultivars/accessions (K = 7).</p
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