1,603 research outputs found

    Capital for Small Business: Sources and Methods

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    A New Method for the Determination of the Real Part of the Hadron Elastic Scattering Amplitude at Small Angles and High Energies

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    A new method for the determination of the real part of the elastic scattering amplitude is examined for high energy proton-proton elastic scattering at small momentum transfer. This method allows us to decrease the number of model assumptions, to obtain the real part in a narrow region of momentum transfer and to test different models. The real part is computed at a given point t_min near t=0 from the known Coulomb amplitude. Hence one obtains an important constraint on the real part of the forward scattering amplitude and therefore on the rho-parameter (measuring the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the scattering amplitude at t=0), which can be tested at LHC.Comment: 10 pages and 5 figures. Final published form in Physics Letters

    Abundances of Planetary Nebula M1-42

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    The spectra of the planetary nebula M1-42 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of ISO, IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the mid- and far-infrared lines, which are insensitive to electron temperature, are used as the basis for the determination of the composition, which are found to substantially differ from earlier results. High values of neon, argon and sulfur are found. They are higher than in other PN, with the exception of NGC6153, a nebula of very similar abundances. The high values of helium and nitrogen found indicate that the second dredge-up and hot bottom burning has occurred in the course of evolution and that the central star was originally more massive than 4Msun. The present temperature and luminosity of the central star is determined and at first sight may be inconsistent with such a high mass.Comment: 9 pages, 8 tables, 1 figure. Accepted for publication in A&

    Parity violating pion electroproduction off the nucleon

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    Parity violating (PV) contributions due to interference between Îł\gamma and Z0Z^0 exchange are calculated for pion electroproduction off the nucleon. A phenomenological model with effective Lagrangians is used to determine the resulting asymmetry for the energy region between threshold and Δ(1232)\Delta(1232) resonance. The Δ\Delta resonance is treated as a Rarita-Schwinger field with phenomenological NΔN \Delta transition currents. The background contributions are given by the usual Born terms using the pseudovector πN\pi N Lagrangian. Numerical results for the asymmetry are presented.Comment: 17 pages, RevTeX, 6 figures (in separate file figs.uu), uses epsf, accepted for publication in Z. Phys.

    Planetary nebulae abundances and stellar evolution II

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    Context: In recent years mid- and far infrared spectra of planetary nebulae have been analysed and lead to more accurate abundances. It may be expected that these better abundances lead to a better understanding of the evolution of these objects. Aims: The observed abundances in planetary nebulae are compared to those predicted by the models of Karakas (2003) in order to predict the progenitor masses of the various PNe used. The morphology of the PNe is included in the comparison. Since the central stars play an important role in the evolution, it is expected that this comparison will yield additional information about them. Methods: First the nitrogen/oxygen ratio is discussed with relation to the helium/hydrogen ratio. The progenitor mass for each PNe can be found by a comparison with the models of Karakas. Then the present luminosity of the central stars is determined in two ways: first by computing the central star effective temperature and radius, and second by computing the nebular luminosity from the hydrogen and helium lines. This luminosity is also a function of the initial mass so that these two values of initial mass can be compared. Results: Six of the seven bipolar nebulae can be identified as descendants of high mass stars (4Msun - 6Msun) while the seventh is ambiguous. Most of the elliptical PNe have central stars which descend from low initial mass stars, although there are a few caveats which are discussed. There is no observational evidence for a higher mass for central stars which have a high carbon/oxygen ratio. The evidence provided by the abundance comparison with the models of Karakas is consistent with the HR diagram to which it is compared. In the course of this discussion it is shown how `optically thin' nebulae can be separated from those which are 'optically thick'.Comment: 12 pages, 4 tables, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in A&

    Physical properties of fullerene-containing Galactic planetary nebulae

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    We searched the Spitzer Space Telescope data archive for Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), which show the characteristic 17.4 and 18.9 ”m features due to C60, also known as buckminsterfullerene. Out of 338 objects with Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph data, we found eleven C60-containing PNe, six of which (Hen2-68, IC2501, K3-62, M1-6, M1-9 and SaSt2-3) are new detections, not known to contain C60 prior to this work. The strongest 17.4 and 18.9 ”m C60 features are seen in Tc1 and SaSt2-3, and these two sources also prominently show the C60 resonances at 7.0 and 8.5 ”m. In the other nine sources, the 7.0 and 8.5 ”m features due to C60 are much weaker. We analysed the spectra, along with ancillary data, using the photoionization code CLOUDY to establish the atomic line fluxes, and determine the properties of the radiation field, as set by the effective temperature of the central star. In addition, we measured the infrared spectral features due to dust grains. We find that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profile over 6–9 ”m in these C60-bearing carbon-rich PNe is of the more chemically processed class A. The intensity ratio of 3.3 to 11.3 ”m PAH indicates that the number of C-atoms per PAH in C60-containing PNe is small compared to that in non-C60 PNe. The Spitzer spectra also show broad dust features around 11 and 30 ”m. Analysis of the 30 ”m feature shows that it is strongly correlated with the continuum, and we propose that a single carbon-based carrier is responsible for both the continuum and the feature. The strength of the 11 ”m feature is correlated to the temperature of the dust, suggesting that it is at least partially due to a solid-state carrier. The chemical abundances of C60-containing PNe can be explained by asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis models for initially 1.5–2.5 M⊙ stars with Z = 0.004. We plotted the locations of C60-containing PNe on a face-on map of the Milky Way and we found that most of these PNe are outside the solar circle, consistent with low metallicity values. Their metallicity suggests that the progenitors are an older population

    Abundances in planetary nebulae: NGC1535, NGC6629, He2-108, and Tc1

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    The aim of the paper is to determine abundances in a group of PNe with uniform morphology. The PNe discussed are circular excited by rather low-temperature central stars. The relation between abundance and evolution is discussed. The mid-infrared spectra of NGC1535, NGC6629, He2-108 and Tc1 taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope are presented. These spectra are combined with IUE and visual spectra to obtain complete extinction-corrected spectra from which the abundances are determined. These abundances are more accurate for several reasons, the most important is that the inclusion of the far infrared spectra increases the number of observed ions and makes it possible to include the nebular temperature gradient in the abundance calculation. The abundances of these PNe are compared to those found in five other PNe of similar properties and are further compared with predictions of evolutionary models. From this comparison we conclude that these PNe originated from low mass stars, probably between 1 and 2.5 solar masses and at present have core masses between 0.56 and 0.63 solar masses. A consistent description of the evolution of this class of PNe is found that agrees with the predictions of the present nebular abundances, the individual masses and the luminosities of these PNe. The distances to these nebulae can be found as well.Comment: 17 pages, 18 tables, 1 figure, Accepted for publication in A&
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