7 research outputs found

    App. Eroticando: una propuesta de contenidos para alfabetizar en sexualidad y erotismo a adolescentes, por medio de una aplicaci├│n movil

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    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo el identificar cu├íles son los saberes de los adolescentes en torno al tema de sexualidad y erotismo, para proponer los contenidos a integrar en una aplicaci├│n m├│vil como herramienta alfabetizadora. Bajo los aportes de la pedagog├şa cr├ştica y la propuesta de c├şrculos de cultura de Paulo Freire, se indag├│ en los intereses y necesidades formativas que presentan los adolescentes en el tema de sexualidad. La recolecci├│n de informaci├│n consisti├│ en dos fases, la aplicaci├│n de un cuestionario y la implementaci├│n de c├şrculos de cultura, por lo que se trata de un estudio desde el paradigma cualitativo, con una aproximaci├│n cuantitativa. Los resultados mostraron que tanto los programas de educaci├│n sexual impartidos en el entorno escolar, como la informaci├│n recibida en el n├║cleo familiar no han podido satisfacer todas las inquietudes de los adolescentes, sobre todo porque de manera general, se enfocan a atender los temas del ├ímbito biol├│gico- preventivo, haciendo a un lado, dimensiones como afectividad, g├ęnero y erotismo. Como resultado, se plantea la aplicaci├│n m├│vil Eroticando como un espacio virtual para intercambiar experiencias, dudas y conocimientos en una comunidad de aprendizaje colectivo

    Culture circlesÔÇöDialogue on knowledge and perceptions regarding sexuality in adolescents

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    Objetivo. Conocer cu├íles son los saberes y percepciones presentes en adolescentes de una escuela de nivel medio superior, respecto a la sexualidad, adem├ís de indagar los principales intereses que este grupo sugiere que sean temas incorporados en la educaci├│n que reciben sobre sexualidad. Metodolog├şa. Se implement├│ la metodolog├şa de c├şrculos de cultura, propuesta por Paulo Freire, que incluye la observaci├│n participante con diario de campo, grabaci├│n de audio y filmaci├│n. Resultados. Para los adolescentes la educaci├│n sexual que reciben tanto en casa como en la escuela no es suficiente para abordar todas sus dudas, sobre todo al momento de hablar de temas como el erotismo y su debut sexual. Objective. Know what knowledge and perceptions have the adolescents of a Mexican high school with respect to sexuality, and investigate the main interests that this group suggested as important to incorporate in the education they receive about sexuality. Methodology. The dialogical methodology proposed by Paulo Freire was implemented: for culture circles, which include participant observation with field diary, audio recording and filming. Results. It was found that for adolescents the sexual education received both at home and at school is not enough to address all their doubts, especially when talking about topics such as eroticism and their sexual debut

    Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy

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    BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, but few effective long-term treatments are available. In cardiovascular trials of inhibitors of sodiumÔÇôglucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), exploratory results have suggested that such drugs may improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuric chronic kidney disease to receive canagliflozin, an oral SGLT2 inhibitor, at a dose of 100 mg daily or placebo. All the patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30 to <90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and albuminuria (ratio of albumin [mg] to creatinine [g], >300 to 5000) and were treated with reninÔÇôangiotensin system blockade. The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage kidney disease (dialysis, transplantation, or a sustained estimated GFR of <15 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), a doubling of the serum creatinine level, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes. Prespecified secondary outcomes were tested hierarchically. RESULTS The trial was stopped early after a planned interim analysis on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring committee. At that time, 4401 patients had undergone randomization, with a median follow-up of 2.62 years. The relative risk of the primary outcome was 30% lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group, with event rates of 43.2 and 61.2 per 1000 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.82; P=0.00001). The relative risk of the renal-specific composite of end-stage kidney disease, a doubling of the creatinine level, or death from renal causes was lower by 34% (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001), and the relative risk of end-stage kidney disease was lower by 32% (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.86; P=0.002). The canagliflozin group also had a lower risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95; P=0.01) and hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.80; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in rates of amputation or fracture. CONCLUSIONS In patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease, the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events was lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group at a median follow-up of 2.62 years

    Effect of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation in Diabetic Kidney Disease: Results From the CREDENCE Trial and Meta-Analysis

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    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate or elevated albuminuria increases risk for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. This study assessed the effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on stroke and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL) from CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation) and a meta-analysis of large cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) of SGLT2i in type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODS: CREDENCE randomized 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease to canagliflozin or placebo. Post hoc, we estimated effects on fatal or nonfatal stroke, stroke subtypes, and intermediate markers of stroke risk including AF/AFL. Stroke and AF/AFL data from 3 other completed large CVOTs and CREDENCE were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: In CREDENCE, 142 participants experienced a stroke during follow-up (10.9/1000 patient-years with canagliflozin, 14.2/1000 patient-years with placebo; hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.55-1.08]). Effects by stroke subtypes were: ischemic (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.61-1.28]; n=111), hemorrhagic (HR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.19-1.32]; n=18), and undetermined (HR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.20-1.46]; n=17). There was no clear effect on AF/AFL (HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.53-1.10]; n=115). The overall effects in the 4 CVOTs combined were: total stroke (HRpooled, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.82-1.12]), ischemic stroke (HRpooled, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.89-1.14]), hemorrhagic stroke (HRpooled, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.30-0.83]), undetermined stroke (HRpooled, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.49-1.51]), and AF/AFL (HRpooled, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.71-0.93]). There was evidence that SGLT2i effects on total stroke varied by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (P=0.01), with protection in the lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate (<45 mL/min/1.73 m2]) subgroup (HRpooled, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.31-0.79]).CONCLUSIONS: Although we found no clear effect of SGLT2i on total stroke in CREDENCE or across trials combined, there was some evidence of benefit in preventing hemorrhagic stroke and AF/AFL, as well as total stroke for those with lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate. Future research should focus on confirming these data and exploring potential mechanisms. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02065791

    Kidney and Cardiovascular Effects of Canagliflozin According to Age and Sex: A Post Hoc Analysis of the CREDENCE Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Rationale & Objective: It is unclear whether the effect of canagliflozin on adverse kidney and cardiovascular events in those with diabetic kid-ney disease varies by age and sex. We assessed the effects of canagliflozin among age group categories and between sexes in the Canagli-flozin and Renal Endpoints in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) study.Study Design: Secondary analysis of a random-ized controlled trial. Setting & Participants: Participants in the CREDENCE trial. Intervention: Participants were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin 100 mg/d or placebo.Outcomes: Primary composite outcome of kid-ney failure, doubling of serum creatinine con-centration, or death due to kidney or cardiovascular disease. Prespecified secondary and safety outcomes were also analyzed. Out-comes were evaluated by age at baseline (<60, 60-69, and >_70 years) and sex in the intention-to-treat population using Cox regression models.Results: The mean age of the cohort was 63.0 & PLUSMN; 9.2 years, and 34% were female. Older age and female sex were independently associ-ated with a lower risk of the composite of adverse kidney outcomes. There was no evidence that the effect of canagliflozin on the primary outcome (acomposite of kidney failure, a doubling of serum creatinine concentration, or death from kidney or cardiovascular causes) differed between age groups (HRs, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.52-0.87], 0.63 [0.4 8-0.82], and 0.89 [0.61-1.29] for ages <60, 60-69, and >_70 years, respectively; P = 0.3 for interaction) or sexes (HRs, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.5 4-0.95] and 0.69 [0.56-0.8 4] in women and men, respectively; P = 0.8 for interaction). No differences in safety outcomes by age group or sex were observed.Limitations: This was a post hoc analysis with multiple comparisons.Conclusions: Canagliflozin consistently reduced the relative risk of kidney events in people with diabetic kidney disease in both sexes and across age subgroups. As a result of greater background risk, the absolute reduction in adverse kidney outcomes was greater in younger participants.Funding: This post hoc analysis of the CREDENCE trial was not funded. The CREDENCE study was sponsored by Janssen Research and Development and was conducted collaboratively by the sponsor, an academic-led steering committee, and an academic research organization, George Clinical.Trial Registration: The original CREDENCE trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with study number NCT02065791

    Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation and History of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Insights from GARFIELD-AF