223,864 research outputs found

    Study of the Wealth Inequality in the Minority Game

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    To demonstrate the usefulness of physical approaches for the study of realistic economic systems, we investigate the inequality of players' wealth in one of the most extensively studied econophysical models, namely, the minority game (MG). We gauge the wealth inequality of players in the MG by a well-known measure in economics known as the modified Gini index. From our numerical results, we conclude that the wealth inequality in the MG is very severe near the point of maximum cooperation among players, where the diversity of the strategy space is approximately equal to the number of strategies at play. In other words, the optimal cooperation between players comes hand in hand with severe wealth inequality. We also show that our numerical results in the asymmetric phase of the MG can be reproduced semi-analytically using a replica method.Comment: 9 pages in revtex 4 style with 3 figures; minor revision with a change of title; to appear in PR

    Non-universal pairing symmetry and pseudogap phenomena in hole- and electron-doped cuprate superconductors

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    Experimental studies of the pairing state of cuprate superconductors reveal asymmetric behaviors of the hole-doped (p-type) and electron-doped (n-type) cuprates. The pairing symmetry, pseudogap phenomenon, low-energy spin excitations and the spatial homogeneity of the superconducting order parameter appear to be non-universal among the cuprates, which may be attributed to competing orders. We propose that the non-universal pseudogap and nano-scale variations in the quasiparticle spectra may be the result of a charge nematic (CN) phase stabilized by disorder in highly two-dimensional (2D) p-type cuprates. The CN phase is accompanied by gapped spin excitations and competes with superconductivity (SC). In contrast, gapless spin excitations may be responsible for the absence of pseudogap and the presence of excess sub-gap spectral weight in the momentum-independent quasiparticle spectra of n-type cuprates. The physical implications and further verifications for these conjectures are discussed

    Collective modes and quasiparticle interference on the local density of states of cuprate superconductors

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    The energy, momentum, and temperature dependence of the quasiparticle local density of states (LDOS) of a two-dimensional d(x2)-(y2)-wave superconductor with random disorder is investigated using the first-order T-matrix approximation. The results suggest that collective modes such as spin-charge-density waves are relevant low-energy excitations of the cuprates that contribute to the observed LDOS modulations in recent scanning tunneling microscopy studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox

    General Kerr-NUT-AdS Metrics in All Dimensions

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    The Kerr-AdS metric in dimension D has cohomogeneity [D/2]; the metric components depend on the radial coordinate r and [D/2] latitude variables \mu_i that are subject to the constraint \sum_i \mu_i^2=1. We find a coordinate reparameterisation in which the \mu_i variables are replaced by [D/2]-1 unconstrained coordinates y_\alpha, and having the remarkable property that the Kerr-AdS metric becomes diagonal in the coordinate differentials dy_\alpha. The coordinates r and y_\alpha now appear in a very symmetrical way in the metric, leading to an immediate generalisation in which we can introduce [D/2]-1 NUT parameters. We find that (D-5)/2 are non-trivial in odd dimensions, whilst (D-2)/2 are non-trivial in even dimensions. This gives the most general Kerr-NUT-AdS metric in DD dimensions. We find that in all dimensions D\ge4 there exist discrete symmetries that involve inverting a rotation parameter through the AdS radius. These symmetries imply that Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics with over-rotating parameters are equivalent to under-rotating metrics. We also consider the BPS limit of the Kerr-NUT-AdS metrics, and thereby obtain, in odd dimensions and after Euclideanisation, new families of Einstein-Sasaki metrics.Comment: Latex, 24 pages, minor typos correcte

    A Killing tensor for higher dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes with NUT charge

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    In this paper, we study the recently discovered family of higher dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes with an extra NUT-like parameter. We show that the inverse metric is additively separable after multiplication by a simple function. This allows us to separate the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, showing that geodesic motion is integrable on this background. The separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is intimately linked to the existence of an irreducible Killing tensor, which provides an extra constant of motion. We also demonstrate that the Klein-Gordon equation for this background is separable.Comment: LaTeX, 14 pages. v2: Typo corrected and equation added. v3: Reference added, introduction expanded, published versio

    Multiple Quantum Well AlGaAs Nanowires

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    This letter reports on the growth, structure and luminescent properties of individual multiple quantum well (MQW) AlGaAs nanowires (NWs). The composition modulations (MQWs) are obtained by alternating the elemental flux of Al and Ga during the molecular beam epitaxy growth of the AlGaAs wire on GaAs (111)B substrates. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy performed on individual NWs are consistent with a configuration composed of conical segments stacked along the NW axis. Micro-photoluminescence measurements and confocal microscopy showed enhanced light emission from the MQW NWs as compared to non-segmented NWs due to carrier confinement and sidewall passivation

    On the preciseness of subtyping in session types

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    Subtyping in concurrency has been extensively studied since early 1990s as one of the most interesting issues in type theory. The correctness of subtyping relations has been usually provided as the soundness for type safety. The converse direction, the completeness, has been largely ignored in spite of its usefulness to define the greatest subtyping relation ensuring type safety. This paper formalises preciseness (i.e. both soundness and completeness) of subtyping for mobile processes and studies it for the synchronous and the asynchronous session calculi. We first prove that the well-known session subtyping, the branching-selection subtyping, is sound and complete for the synchronous calculus. Next we show that in the asynchronous calculus, this subtyping is incomplete for type-safety: that is, there exist session types T and S such that T can safely be considered as a subtype of S, but T ≤ S is not derivable by the subtyping. We then propose an asynchronous sub-typing system which is sound and complete for the asynchronous calculus. The method gives a general guidance to design rigorous channel-based subtypings respecting desired safety properties

    Isolated cold plasma regions: Observations and their relation to possible production mechanisms

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    Regions of enhanced cold plasma, isolated from the main plasmasphere along the Explorer 45 orbit on the equatorial plane, are reported using the sheath induced potentials seen by the electric field experiment. The occurrence of these regions has a strong correlation with negative enhancements of Dst, and their locations are primarily in the noon-dusk quadrant. The data support the concept that changes in large scale convection play a dominant role in the formation of these regions. Plasmatails that are predicted from enhancements of large scale convection electric fields in general define where these regions may be found. More localized processes are necessary to account for the exact configuration and structure seen in these regions and may eventually result in detachment from the main plasmasphere
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