8,410 research outputs found

    The generalized F-statistic: multiple detectors and multiple GW pulsars

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    The F-statistic, derived by Jaranowski, Krolak & Schutz (1998), is the optimal (frequentist) statistic for the detection of nearly periodic gravitational waves from known neutron stars, in the presence of stationary, Gaussian detector noise. The F-statistic was originally derived for the case of a single detector, whose noise spectral density was assumed constant in time, and for a single known neutron star. Here we show how the F-statistic can be straightforwardly generalized to the cases of 1) a network of detectors with time-varying noise curves, and 2) a population of known sources. Fortunately, all the important ingredients that go into our generalized F-statistics are already calculated in the single-source/single-detector searches that are currently implemented, e.g., in the LIGO Software Library, so implementation of optimal multi-detector, multi-source searches should require negligible additional cost in computational power or software development.Comment: 6 pages, 0 figures, submitted to PRD; section IV substantially enlarged and revised, and a few typos correcte

    An Overview of Gravitational-Wave Sources

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    We review current best estimates of the strength and detectability of the gravitational waves from a variety of sources, for both ground-based and space-based detectors, and we describe the information carried by the waves

    The Angular Resolution of Space-Based Gravitational Wave Detectors

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    Proposed space-based gravitational wave antennas involve satellites arrayed either in an equilateral triangle around the earth in the ecliptic plane (the ecliptic-plane option) or in an equilateral triangle orbiting the sun in such a way that the plane of the triangle is tilted at 60 degrees relative to the ecliptic (the precessing-plane option). In this paper, we explore the angular resolution of these two classes of detectors for two kinds of sources (essentially monochromatic compact binaries and coalescing massive-black-hole binaries) using time-domain expressions for the gravitational waveform that are accurate to 4/2 PN order. Our results display an interesting effect not previously reported in the literature, and underline the importance of including the higher-order PN terms in the waveform when predicting the angular resolution of ecliptic-plane detector arrays.Comment: 13 pages, 6 figures, submitted to Phys Rev D. The current version corrects an error in our original paper and adds some clarifying language. The error also required correction of the graphs now shown in Figures 3 through

    The information content of gravitational wave harmonics in compact binary inspiral

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    The nonlinear aspect of gravitational wave generation that produces power at harmonics of the orbital frequency, above the fundamental quadrupole frequency, is examined to see what information about the source is contained in these higher harmonics. We use an order (4/2) post-Newtonian expansion of the gravitational wave waveform of a binary system to model the signal seen in a spaceborne gravitational wave detector such as the proposed LISA detector. Covariance studies are then performed to determine the ultimate accuracy to be expected when the parameters of the source are fit to the received signal. We find three areas where the higher harmonics contribute crucial information that breaks degeneracies in the model and allows otherwise badly-correlated parameters to be separated and determined. First, we find that the position of a coalescing massive black hole binary in an ecliptic plane detector, such as OMEGA, is well-determined with the help of these harmonics. Second, we find that the individual masses of the stars in a chirping neutron star binary can be separated because of the mass dependence of the harmonic contributions to the wave. Finally, we note that supermassive black hole binaries, whose frequencies are too low to be seen in the detector sensitivity window for long, may still have their masses, distances, and positions determined since the information content of the higher harmonics compensates for the information lost when the orbit-induced modulation of the signal does not last long enough to be apparent in the data.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figure

    Thermal and electromagnetic radiation from dust structures

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    Dust particle behavior as possible structured arrays for thermal and electromagnetic radiators in space environment

    Effects of finite arm-length of LISA on analysis of gravitational waves from MBH binaries

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    Response of an interferometer becomes complicated for gravitational wave shorter than the arm-length of the detector, as nature of wave appears strongly. We have studied how parameter estimation for merging massive black hole binaries are affected by this complicated effect in the case of LISA. It is shown that three dimensional positions of some binaries might be determined much better than the past estimations that use the long wave approximation. For equal mass binaries this improvement is most prominent at \sim 10^5\sol.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures, to appear in Phys.Rev.

    Public knowledge about polar regions increases while concerns remain unchanged

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    The authors of this brief conduct the first comparative analysis of the polar questions that were part of the National Opinion Research Center\u27s 2006 and 2010 General Social Survey. Developed by scientists at the National Science Foundation\u27s Office of Polar Programs, these questions covered topics such as climate change, melting ice and rising sea levels, and species extinction. The authors report that the public\u27s knowledge about the north and south polar regions significantly improved between 2006 and 2010--before and after the International Polar Year. In addition, respondents who know more about science in general, and polar facts specifically, tend to be more concerned about polar changes. More knowledgeable respondents also tend to favor reserving the Antarctic for science, rather than opening it for commercial development

    Regularization of the second-order gravitational perturbations produced by a compact object

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    The equations for the second-order gravitational perturbations produced by a compact-object have highly singular source terms at the point particle limit. At this limit the standard retarded solutions to these equations are ill-defined. Here we construct well-defined and physically meaningful solutions to these equations. These solutions are important for practical calculations: the planned gravitational-wave detector LISA requires preparation of waveform templates for the potential gravitational-waves. Construction of templates with desired accuracy for extreme mass ratio binaries, in which a compact-object inspirals towards a supermassive black-hole, requires calculation of the second-order gravitational perturbations produced by the compact-object.Comment: 12 pages, discussion expanded, to be published in Phys. Rev. D Rapid Communicatio

    Filtering post-Newtonian gravitational waves from coalescing binaries

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    Gravitational waves from inspiralling binaries are expected to be detected using a data analysis technique known as {\it matched filtering.} This technique is applicable whenever the form of the signal is known accurately. Though we know the form of the signal precisely, we will not know {\it a priori} its parameters. Hence it is essential to filter the raw output through a host of search templates each corresponding to different values of the parameters. The number of search templates needed in detecting the Newtonian waveform characterized by three independent parameters is itself several thousands. With the inclusion of post-Newtonian corrections the inspiral waveform will have four independent parameters and this, it was thought, would lead to an increase in the number of filters by several orders of magnitude---an unfavorable feature since it would drastically slow down data analysis. In this paper I show that by a judicious choice of signal parameters we can work, even when the first post-Newtonian corrections are included, with as many number of parameters as in the Newtonian case. In other words I demonstrate that the effective dimensionality of the signal parameter space does not change when first post-Newtonian corrections are taken into account.Comment: 5 pages, revtex, 2 figures available upon reques
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