29 research outputs found

    Nutritional parameters of raw materials and mixtures as base for producing breakfast cereals

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    From the most eldest times cereals were an important source of food. Their high content in carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, mineral substances (K, Ca, Mg, Si, Na, Cu, Mo, Mn) and vitamins like (B1, B2, B5, B6, PP) offer our organism a high percentage of the energy and mineral substances that it needs for survival. Alongside the cereals, bens vegetables tend to complete the lack of cereals, bringing a high amount of nutrients. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the relevant nutritional parameters to elaborate breakfast cereals from a mix of whole wheat flour, soybean flour, millet flour, lentil, rice, oatmeal, chickpeas in order to see which flours and combination of flours gives the ideal dough for extrusion. There were analysed the protein content (%), moisture (%), ash (%), fat (%) , gluten content (%), in the laboratory of milling and baking from the Faculty of Food Processing Technology of USAMVB Timisoara. The analyses were performed by spectrophotometer with Fourier transformer, Infra LUM FT – 10. To the studied mixtures, it can be seen that in each case, except mixture 7 (lentil 25%+ 75 % rice) was recorded high values of gluten, followed by proteins, minerals and fats. From the above data it can be noticed that each mixture is a quite a good candidate to manufacture cereal flakes. It was observed that mixtures in combination with water gives an gelatinous composition similar to classic bread dough, which makes them ideal for processing in an extruder for cereal flakes

    Evaluation of the antioxidant effect of thymus vulgaris extract sunflower oil used in food thermal applications

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    This study was performed to investigate the retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil using thyme extract (TE) compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The sunflower oil was subjected to convection heating for 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 hours. The analyses which were made in order to watch the progress of lipid oxidation are the peroxid value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV) and TOTOX value. The antioxidant characteristics of thyme was measured determining the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value and total phenolics value. The results of this study highlight that thyme extract (TE) showed a significant inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during heat treatment. Thyme extract in doses of 200 and 600 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to buylated hydroxytoluen, and in a dose of 1000 ppm resulted a significant decrease of investigated indices such as peroxid value, p-anisidine value and TOTOX value. Thyme natural extract can be used for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil replacing successfully butylated hydroxytoluen according to the results

    Management of Apple Scab and Powdery Mildew Using Bicarbonate Salts and Other Alternative Organic Products with Fungicide Effect in Apple Cultivars

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    The control of apple scab and powdery mildew is a challenge for organic fruit growing. Bicarbonate salts are already consecrate in reducing the attack of scab and powdery mildew in organic apple culture. In the current study the influence of some products accepted in organic apple production to control scab and powdery mildew (potasium bicarbonate, lime sulphur, wettable sulphur, potassium silicate, cooper ammonium-phosphate, potassium bicarbonate + potassium silicate, potassium bicarbonate + wettable sulphur) in comparison with untreated control, were used.  The biological material was represented by three scab resistant cultivars (‘Luna’, ‘Topaz’ and ‘Sirius’) and three scab susceptible cultivars (‘Elstar’, ‘Pinova’ and ‘Golden Delicious’). The experiments were carried out during 2014-2016 at Steluța LTD, Cluj-Napoca, N.W. Romania, as a bifactorial experiment arranged in randomized blocks. The trees were planted in 2011 at a density of 3,175 trees/ha. Depending of the year, a number of 18-22 treatments were made annually after each rain. It can be concluded that the combination of potassium bicarbonate + wettable sulphur significantly reduced the attack degree of scab and powdery mildew on leaves and fruits and increased the yield of the scab-susceptible and scab resistant cultivars. Good results were obtained in the case of treatment with potassium bicarbonate with potassium silicate, potassium bicarbonate and cooper ammonium phosphate. The treatments with the products used in the experiments did not register symptoms of phytotoxicity on leaves or fruits, except lime sulphur and wettable sulphur and cooper ammonium phosphates

    Evaluation of the antioxidant effect of thymus vulgaris extract sunflower oil used in food thermal applications

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    This study was performed to investigate the retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil using thyme extract (TE) compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The sunflower oil was subjected to convection heating for 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 hours. The analyses which were made in order to watch the progress of lipid oxidation are the peroxid value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV) and TOTOX value. The antioxidant characteristics of thyme was measured determining the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value and total phenolics value. The results of this study highlight that thyme extract (TE) showed a significant inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during heat treatment. Thyme extract in doses of 200 and 600 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to buylated hydroxytoluen, and in a dose of 1000 ppm resulted a significant decrease of investigated indices such as peroxid value, p-anisidine value and TOTOX value. Thyme natural extract can be used for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil replacing successfully butylated hydroxytoluen according to the results

    An above-barrier narrow resonance in F-15

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    Intense and purified radioactive beam of post-accelerated O-14 was used to study the low-lying states in the unbound F-15 nucleus. Exploiting resonant elastic scattering in inverse kinematics with a thick target, the second excited state, a resonance at E-R = 4.757(6)(10) MeV with a width of Gamma = 36(5)(14) keV was measured for the first time with high precision. The structure of this narrow above-barrier state in a nucleus located two neutrons beyond the proton drip line was investigated using the Gamow Shell Model in the coupled channel representation with a C-12 core and three valence protons. It is found that it is an almost pure wave function of two quasi-bound protons in the 2s(1/2) shell. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V

    The CERN FCC Conductor Development Program: a Worldwide Effort for the Future Generation of High-Field Magnets

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    The study of next-generation high-energy accelerators based on 16 T dipoles has emphasized the need for higher performance, cost-effective Nb₃Sn superconducting wires. A Conductor Development Program aiming to reach a non-copper critical current density (Jc) of 1500 A/mm² at 16 T and 4.2 K has been launched by CERN, with the involvement of industry and laboratories worldwide. In this paper, the targets and strategy of the program are presented, with an overview of the wire layouts and development activities being pursued by each partner, and the latest characterization results are reported. Three of the four participating manufacturers have successfully reached the first-stage Jc milestone, but a significant advance is still needed to achieve the final target. The next steps are briefly discussed, as the program focuses increasingly on novel alloys and methods to maximize Jc

    Microstructure, composition and critical current density of superconducting Nb<sub>3</sub>Sn wires

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    The production of superconducting Nb3Sn multifilamentary wires with optimized critical currents requires a detailed knowledge of various processes, involving both the mechanical deformation and the reaction kinetics. The physical properties of the Nb3Sn phase are briefly reviewed, the precise knowledge of their variation as a function of the Sn content being essential for the optimization of the critical current density, Jc. The variation of the transition temperature Tc, the upper critical field, Bc2(0), and the normal state electric resistivity ρo, as a function of the Sn content, β, in the binary system Nb1−βSnβ is carefully analyzed. The effect of Ta, Ti and Ta + Ti additives to Nb3Sn on the physical properties is discussed in detail. Low temperature specific heat measurements are introduced for determining the Tc distribution inside Nb3Sn filaments while avoiding shielding effects. The microstructure of the superconducting phase in Bronze Route and Internal Sn Diffusion processed wires is studied, taking into account the unique microstructure of Bronze Route filaments, comprising an equiaxed and a columnar grain region, their areas being comparable. The Sn content increases gradually, from 18 to 22 at.% in columnar and from 22 to 25 at.% in equiaxed grains. Taking into account the equiaxed grains only in Bronze Route wires, it is found that the pinning force density FGB is essentially the same as in the superconducting part of Internal Sn and PIT wires. The lower values of the overall FGB in Bronze Route wires is due to the presence of columnar grains, with lower Tc and Bc2. The presence of columnar grains also explains the deviation from linearity of the Kramer rule in Bronze Route wires. The mechanism leading to the variation of Jc vs. ε, where ε is the uniaxial applied strain, is correlated to the elastic tetragonal distortion of the A15 phase in the filaments, caused by the matrix precompression or by Lorentz forces. The behavior of Jc (ε) is found to show systematic differences between Bronze Route and Internal Sn processed wires. Possible reasons for the stronger variation of Jc (ε) up to 21 T in Internal Sn wires are discussed

    A new generation of in situ MgB2 wires with improved Jc and Birr values obtained by cold densification (CHPD)

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    By means of Cold High Pressure Densification (CHPD), the critical current density, Jc, of binary and alloyed MgB2 wires has been enhanced by more than a factor 2 at 4.2 K and at fields up to 19 T. The relative MgB2 mass density of binary MgB2 wires was enhanced to ~ 54% after applying 2.5 GPa at 300 K before reaction. In C4H6O5 (malic acid) alloyed wires, densification also caused the enhancement of Birr, as a consequence of a slightly enhanced C content, determined by X ray diffraction. Almost isotropic Jc values were obtained for C4H6O5 added wires of 1 × 0.6 mm2 cross section, the values of Jc(4.2 K)=1 × 104 A/cm2 for parallel and perpendicular fields being obtained at 13.8 and 13.4 T, respectively (1 μV/cm criterion). The corresponding values for 20 K were both close to 6.2 T. The value of Birr// at 20 K was 11 T. The positive effects of cold densification on Jc and Birr on MgB2 was also observed on 150 mm long wires alloyed with C4H6O5 (malic acid) or with SiC, by the succession of 6 overlapping pressure steps. This process can be extended to long wire lengths: by means of a newly developed prototype machine with an automatic press/release/advance sequence, a first wire length of 1 m was densified at 1.5 GPa, yielding Jc(4.2 K) = 1 x 104 A/cm2 at 13.1 T. Further improvements are expected after optimization

    Optimization of Nb<sub>3</sub>Sn and MgB<sub>2</sub> wires

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    The critical current density in industrial Nb3Sn and MgB2 wires is currently optimized by introducing various kinds of additives, either Ta and/or Ti for Nb3Sn wires or SiC or C for MgB2 wires. In the following, several problems linked to the presence of additives in the two classes of compounds are discussed. A reinvestigation of the site occupancy of Ta and Ti additives in Nb3Sn wires shows that the Ta atoms occupy the 6c chain sites, while the Ti atoms are located on the cubic 2a sites. It follows that in perfectly ordered A15 compounds A1−βBβ, the relation ρo versus β exhibits a 'universal' behavior: the effect of the chemical nature of the constituents on ρo is negligible. The slopes of ρ0 versus the Ti, Ga and Ni contents in the A15 layer coincide and are much steeper than for the Ta additive, corresponding to the three times higher number of 6c sites with respect to 2a A15 lattice sites. The presence of two grain morphologies, e.g. equiaxial and columnar, is observed in Nb3Sn wires produced by the bronze route only. The nonlinearity of the Kramer plot in multifilamentary Nb3Sn bronze route wires is explained by the presence of these two different grain types, which have distinctly different Sn contents and sizes. For these wires, the total pinning force can be represented as the superposition of two contributions with different scaling fields. Simultaneous addition of different additives on 'in situ' Fe/MgB2 wires is presented as an attempt to combine different possible mechanisms influencing Jc. The substitution of boron by carbon is known to enhance the value of ρo and thus of the critical field. In addition, the pinning behavior is expected to be improved by grain boundary effects or nanosize precipitations, caused by the presence of appropriate additives during the MgB2 phase formation. Since the two mechanisms are independent, their effect on Jc is expected to be cumulative. In the present paper, the results on the additive combination B4C+LaB6 in monofilamentary Fe sheathed MgB2 wires are reported. The data are compared with the additives B4C+SiC and show that simultaneous additives could be promising in view of applications at 20 K
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