161 research outputs found

    Mass concentration in a nonlocal model of clonal selection

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    Self-renewal is a constitutive property of stem cells. Testing the cancer stem cell hypothesis requires investigation of the impact of self-renewal on cancer expansion. To understand better this impact, we propose a mathematical model describing dynamics of a continuum of cell clones structured by the self-renewal potential. The model is an extension of the finite multi-compartment models of interactions between normal and cancer cells in acute leukemias. It takes a form of a system of integro-differential equations with a nonlinear and nonlocal coupling, which describes regulatory feedback loops in cell proliferation and differentiation process. We show that such coupling leads to mass concentration in points corresponding to maximum of the self-renewal potential and the model solutions tend asymptotically to a linear combination of Dirac measures. Furthermore, using a Lyapunov function constructed for a finite dimensional counterpart of the model, we prove that the total mass of the solution converges to a globally stable equilibrium. Additionally, we show stability of the model in space of positive Radon measures equipped with flat metric. The analytical results are illustrated by numerical simulations

    Asymptotic behaviour of integro-differential equations describing clonal evolution of leukemia

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    This thesis is devoted to the analysis of a system of integro-differential equations describing leukemia, a type of blood cancer. Existence and uniqueness for arbitrary times are shown and the long-term behaviour of the solution is characterised. In order to achieve the asymptotic behaviour of the solution it is proved that a normalized (with respect to total mass) solution forms a Dirac sequence, thus the solution converges for time tending to infinity to a Dirac measure. Moreover the total mass converges, too, which is shown by combining an asymptotic stability result via a Lyapunov function with a perturbation argument. Additionally, the convergence result is generalised to a suitable measure space. Furthermore, the model is extended by an additional integral term with a small multiplicative coefficient in order to capture the idea of mutation. For this newly obtained system it is shown existence and uniqueness of both a solution for arbitrary times and a positive steady state. The latter is achieved by interpreting the steady state equations as an eigenvalue problem and by using the Krein-Rutman theorem. The local asymptotic stability of the steady state is proven by using linearised stability. The spectrum, which is crucial for linearised stability, is investigated with the method of the Weinstein-Aronszajn formula. Moreover, it is proven that the stable steady state of the extended model converges weakly^* to the stable steady state of the original model if the coefficient of the newly introduced integral term tends to zero. Lastly, a numerical scheme, which has been used to simulate the original model, is illustrated and its convergence to the analytical solution is proven

    Differential limit on the extremely-high-energy cosmic neutrino flux in the presence of astrophysical background from nine years of IceCube data

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    We report a quasi-differential upper limit on the extremely-high-energy (EHE) neutrino flux above 5×1065\times 10^{6} GeV based on an analysis of nine years of IceCube data. The astrophysical neutrino flux measured by IceCube extends to PeV energies, and it is a background flux when searching for an independent signal flux at higher energies, such as the cosmogenic neutrino signal. We have developed a new method to place robust limits on the EHE neutrino flux in the presence of an astrophysical background, whose spectrum has yet to be understood with high precision at PeV energies. A distinct event with a deposited energy above 10610^{6} GeV was found in the new two-year sample, in addition to the one event previously found in the seven-year EHE neutrino search. These two events represent a neutrino flux that is incompatible with predictions for a cosmogenic neutrino flux and are considered to be an astrophysical background in the current study. The obtained limit is the most stringent to date in the energy range between 5×1065 \times 10^{6} and 5×10105 \times 10^{10} GeV. This result constrains neutrino models predicting a three-flavor neutrino flux of $E_\nu^2\phi_{\nu_e+\nu_\mu+\nu_\tau}\simeq2\times 10^{-8}\ {\rm GeV}/{\rm cm}^2\ \sec\ {\rm sr}at at 10^9\ {\rm GeV}$. A significant part of the parameter-space for EHE neutrino production scenarios assuming a proton-dominated composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is excluded.Comment: The version accepted for publication in Physical Review

    A united statement of the global chiropractic research community against the pseudoscientific claim that chiropractic care boosts immunity.

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    BACKGROUND: In the midst of the coronavirus pandemic, the International Chiropractors Association (ICA) posted reports claiming that chiropractic care can impact the immune system. These claims clash with recommendations from the World Health Organization and World Federation of Chiropractic. We discuss the scientific validity of the claims made in these ICA reports. MAIN BODY: We reviewed the two reports posted by the ICA on their website on March 20 and March 28, 2020. We explored the method used to develop the claim that chiropractic adjustments impact the immune system and discuss the scientific merit of that claim. We provide a response to the ICA reports and explain why this claim lacks scientific credibility and is dangerous to the public. More than 150 researchers from 11 countries reviewed and endorsed our response. CONCLUSION: In their reports, the ICA provided no valid clinical scientific evidence that chiropractic care can impact the immune system. We call on regulatory authorities and professional leaders to take robust political and regulatory action against those claiming that chiropractic adjustments have a clinical impact on the immune system

    Mechanical design of the optical modules intended for IceCube-Gen2

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    IceCube-Gen2 is an expansion of the IceCube neutrino observatory at the South Pole that aims to increase the sensitivity to high-energy neutrinos by an order of magnitude. To this end, about 10,000 new optical modules will be installed, instrumenting a fiducial volume of about 8 km3. Two newly developed optical module types increase IceCube’s current sensitivity per module by a factor of three by integrating 16 and 18 newly developed four-inch PMTs in specially designed 12.5-inch diameter pressure vessels. Both designs use conical silicone gel pads to optically couple the PMTs to the pressure vessel to increase photon collection efficiency. The outside portion of gel pads are pre-cast onto each PMT prior to integration, while the interiors are filled and cast after the PMT assemblies are installed in the pressure vessel via a pushing mechanism. This paper presents both the mechanical design, as well as the performance of prototype modules at high pressure (70 MPa) and low temperature (−40∘C), characteristic of the environment inside the South Pole ice

    Direction reconstruction performance for IceCube-Gen2 Radio

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    The IceCube-Gen2 facility will extend the energy range of IceCube to ultra-high energies. The key component to detect neutrinos with energies above 10 PeV is a large array of in-ice radio detectors. In previous work, direction reconstruction algorithms using the forward-folding technique have been developed for both shallow (â‰Č20 m) and deep in-ice detectors, and have also been successfully used to reconstruct cosmic rays with ARIANNA. Here, we focus on the reconstruction algorithm for the deep in-ice detector, which was recently introduced in the context of the Radio Neutrino Observatory in Greenland (RNO-G)

    The next generation neutrino telescope: IceCube-Gen2

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    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, a cubic-kilometer-scale neutrino detector at the geographic South Pole, has reached a number of milestones in the field of neutrino astrophysics: the discovery of a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux, the temporal and directional correlation of neutrinos with a flaring blazar, and a steady emission of neutrinos from the direction of an active galaxy of a Seyfert II type and the Milky Way. The next generation neutrino telescope, IceCube-Gen2, currently under development, will consist of three essential components: an array of about 10,000 optical sensors, embedded within approximately 8 cubic kilometers of ice, for detecting neutrinos with energies of TeV and above, with a sensitivity five times greater than that of IceCube; a surface array with scintillation panels and radio antennas targeting air showers; and buried radio antennas distributed over an area of more than 400 square kilometers to significantly enhance the sensitivity of detecting neutrino sources beyond EeV. This contribution describes the design and status of IceCube-Gen2 and discusses the expected sensitivity from the simulations of the optical, surface, and radio components

    Sensitivity of IceCube-Gen2 to measure flavor composition of Astrophysical neutrinos

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    The observation of an astrophysical neutrino flux in IceCube and its detection capability to separate between the different neutrino flavors has led IceCube to constraint the flavor content of this flux. IceCube-Gen2 is the planned extension of the current IceCube detector, which will be about 8 times larger than the current instrumented volume. In this work, we study the sensitivity of IceCube-Gen2 to the astrophysical neutrino flavor composition and investigate its tau neutrino identification capabilities. We apply the IceCube analysis on a simulated IceCube-Gen2 dataset that mimics the High Energy Starting Event (HESE) classification. Reconstructions are performed using sensors that have 3 times higher quantum efficiency and isotropic angular acceptance compared to the current IceCube optical modules. We present the projected sensitivity for 10 years of data on constraining the flavor ratio of the astrophysical neutrino flux at Earth by IceCube-Gen2