69 research outputs found

    Complementary And Integrative Approaches For Pain Management

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    Many people around the world use health care approaches that were developed outside conventional allopathic medicine. More than 30% of adults in the United States, with similar numbers in Europe, utilize complementary health approaches [20,47]. Chronic pain, particularly musculoskeletal pain, is one of the most common reasons for individuals to use complementary health care approaches. It is estimated that more than 40% of individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain try some form of complementary therapy [21]. Chronic pain has become a health crisis in the United States and around the world. It is estimated that the prevalence of chronic pain (defined as chronic, recurrent, or long-lasting pain continuing for at least 6 months) is more than 30% in women and more than 25% in men [39]. Pain is most commonly treated using pharmacotherapy, but with the growing opioid epidemic, it is important to examine the use of nonpharmacological therapies to treat pain. Rather than giving an overview of all complementary practices, this course will focus on three nonpharmacological approaches to treating chronic pain that have shown significant clinical effects— cognitive-behavioral therapies, manual therapies, and yoga therapy—and discuss mechanisms that may underlie their effectiveness

    Fibromyalgia and Depression

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    Fibromyalgia and depression might represent two manifestations of affective spectrum disorder. They share similar pathophysiology and are largely targeted by the same drugs with dual action on serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. Here, we review evidence for genetic and environmental factors that predispose, precipitate, and perpetuate fibromyalgia and depression and include laboratory findings on the role of depression in fibromyalgia. Further, we comment on several aspects of fibromyalgia which support the development of reactive depression, substantially more so than in other chronic pain syndromes. However, while sharing many features with depression, fibromyalgia is associated with somatic comorbidities and absolutely defined by fluctuating spontaneous widespread pain. Fibromyalgia may, therefore, be more appropriately grouped together with other functional pain disorders, while psychologically distressed subgroups grouped additionally or solely with affective spectrum disorders

    Neurobiology Underlying Fibromyalgia Symptoms

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    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, clinical symptoms that include cognitive and sleep disturbances, and other abnormalities such as increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, increased sensitivity to multiple sensory modalities, and altered pain modulatory mechanisms. Here we relate experimental findings of fibromyalgia symptoms to anatomical and functional brain changes. Neuroimaging studies show augmented sensory processing in pain-related areas, which, together with gray matter decreases and neurochemical abnormalities in areas related to pain modulation, supports the psychophysical evidence of altered pain perception and inhibition. Gray matter decreases in areas related to emotional decision making and working memory suggest that cognitive disturbances could be related to brain alterations. Altered levels of neurotransmitters involved in sleep regulation link disordered sleep to neurochemical abnormalities. Thus, current evidence supports the view that at least some fibromyalgia symptoms are associated with brain dysfunctions or alterations, giving the long-held “it is all in your head” view of the disorder a new meaning

    Evidence against pain specificity in the dorsal posterior insula

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    The search for a pain centre in the brain has long eluded neuroscientists. Although many regions of the brain have been shown to respond to painful stimuli, all of these regions also respond to other types of salient stimuli. In a recent paper, Segerdahl et al. (Nature Neuroscience, 2015) claims that the dorsal posterior insula (dpIns) is a pain-specific region based on the observation that the magnitude of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) fluctuations in the dpIns correlated with the magnitude of evoked pain. However, such a conclusion is, simply, not justified by the experimental evidence provided. Here we discuss three major factors that seriously question this claim

    Human brain mechanisms of pain perception and regulation in health and disease

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    Context The perception of pain due to an acute injury or in clinical pain states undergoes substantial processing at supraspinal levels. Supraspinal, brain mechanisms are increasingly recognized as playing a major role in the representation and modulation of pain experience. These neural mechanisms may then contribute to interindividual variations and disabilities associated with chronic pain conditions. Objective To systematically review the literature regarding how activity in diverse brain regions creates and modulates the experience of acute and chronic pain states, emphasizing the contribution of various imaging techniques to emerging concepts. Data Sources MEDLINE and PRE‐MEDLINE searches were performed to identify all English‐language articles that examine human brain activity during pain, using hemodynamic (PET, fMRI), neuroelectrical (EEG, MEG) and neurochemical methods (MRS, receptor binding and neurotransmitter modulation), from January 1, 1988 to March 1, 2003. Additional studies were identified through bibliographies. Study Selection Studies were selected based on consensus across all four authors. The criteria included well‐designed experimental procedures, as well as landmark studies that have significantly advanced the field. Data Synthesis Sixty‐eight hemodynamic studies of experimental pain in normal subjects, 30 in clinical pain conditions, and 30 using neuroelectrical methods met selection criteria and were used in a meta‐analysis. Another 24 articles were identified where brain neurochemistry of pain was examined. Technical issues that may explain differences between studies across laboratories are expounded. The evidence for and the respective incidences of brain areas constituting the brain network for acute pain are presented. The main components of this network are: primary and secondary somatosensory, insular, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortices (S1, S2, IC, ACC, PFC) and thalamus (Th). Evidence for somatotopic organization, based on 10 studies, and psychological modulation, based on 20 studies, is discussed, as well as the temporal sequence of the afferent volley to the cortex, based on neuroelectrical studies. A meta‐analysis highlights important methodological differences in identifying the brain network underlying acute pain perception. It also shows that the brain network for acute pain perception in normal subjects is at least partially distinct from that seen in chronic clinical pain conditions and that chronic pain engages brain regions critical for cognitive/emotional assessments, implying that this component of pain may be a distinctive feature between chronic and acute pain. The neurochemical studies highlight the role of opiate and catecholamine transmitters and receptors in pain states, and in the modulation of pain with environmental and genetic influences. Conclusions The nociceptive system is now recognized as a sensory system in its own right, from primary afferents to multiple brain areas. Pain experience is strongly modulated by interactions of ascending and descending pathways. Understanding these modulatory mechanisms in health and in disease is critical for developing fully effective therapies for the treatment of clinical pain conditions.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/90300/1/j.ejpain.2004.11.001.pd

    Peripheral Nerve Injury Is Associated with Chronic, Reversible Changes in Global DNA Methylation in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

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    Changes in brain structure and cortical function are associated with many chronic pain conditions including low back pain and fibromyalgia. The magnitude of these changes correlates with the duration and/or the intensity of chronic pain. Most studies report changes in common areas involved in pain modulation, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and pain-related pathological changes in the PFC can be reversed with effective treatment. While the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown, they must be dynamically regulated. Epigenetic modulation of gene expression in response to experience and environment is reversible and dynamic. Epigenetic modulation by DNA methylation is associated with abnormal behavior and pathological gene expression in the central nervous system. DNA methylation might also be involved in mediating the pathologies associated with chronic pain in the brain. We therefore tested a) whether alterations in DNA methylation are found in the brain long after chronic neuropathic pain is induced in the periphery using the spared nerve injury modal and b) whether these injury-associated changes are reversible by interventions that reverse the pathologies associated with chronic pain. Six months following peripheral nerve injury, abnormal sensory thresholds and increased anxiety were accompanied by decreased global methylation in the PFC and the amygdala but not in the visual cortex or the thalamus. Environmental enrichment attenuated nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity and reversed the changes in global PFC methylation. Furthermore, global PFC methylation correlated with mechanical and thermal sensitivityin neuropathic mice. In summary, induction of chronic pain by peripheral nerve injury is associated with epigenetic changes in the brain. These changes are detected long after the original injury, at a long distance from the site of injury and are reversible with environmental manipulation. Changes in brain structure and cortical function that are associated with chronic pain conditions may therefore be mediated by epigenetic mechanisms

    Donor insulin use predicts beta‐cell function after islet transplantation

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    Insulin is routinely used to manage hyperglycaemia in organ donors and during the peri-transplant period in islet transplant recipients. However, it is unknown whether donor insulin use (DIU) predicts beta-cell dysfunction after islet transplantation. We reviewed data from the UK Transplant Registry and the UK Islet Transplant Consortium; all first-time transplants during 2008-2016 were included. Linear regression models determined associations between DIU, median and coefficient of variation (CV) peri-transplant glucose levels and 3-month islet graft function. In 91 islet cell transplant recipients, DIU was associated with lower islet function assessed by BETA-2 scores (β [SE] -3.5 [1.5], P = .02), higher 3-month post-transplant HbA1c levels (5.4 [2.6] mmol/mol, P = .04) and lower fasting C-peptide levels (−107.9 [46.1] pmol/l, P = .02). Glucose at 10 512 time points was recorded during the first 5 days peri-transplant: the median (IQR) daily glucose level was 7.9 (7.0-8.9) mmol/L and glucose CV was 28% (21%-35%). Neither median glucose levels nor glucose CV predicted outcomes post-transplantation. Data on DIU predicts beta-cell dysfunction 3 months after islet transplantation and could help improve donor selection and transplant outcomes