277 research outputs found

    Wisconsin school counselor perceptions of school climate experiences of gay and lesbian youth

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    Includes bibliographical references

    Hybrid financing instruments : analyzing investors’ reactions to the issuance of convertible bonds

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    Convertible bonds have become increasingly popular over the past years. However, there is still no clear consent about why companies issue convertible bonds and how investors perceive companies who issue them. This research aims to provide more insights into the investors’ perspective. Thereby, interviews with European convertible bond investors and an event study based in Europe are conducted. The findings make clear that investors have different perceptions and do not agree with all theories. Nonetheless, they provide more insights into investors’ reactions to the issuance of convertible bonds which can be helpful for companies as they can understand which signals they send. In particular, the research shows that green convertible bonds are becoming increasingly important for investors. Furthermore, the event study shows that there is a clear difference between mature and growth companies that issue convertible bonds. The market reacts negatively to the issuance of both companies, however for growth companies, this effect is only temporary while for mature companies it continues. Additionally, mature companies already performed worse before the issuance in terms of cumulative average abnormal returns than growth companies. Overall, this research provides more insights into investors’ perceptions and helps companies to understand which signals their issuance of convertible bonds sends.Os tĂ­tulos convertĂ­veis tĂȘm-se tornado cada vez mais populares nos Ășltimos anos. Contudo, ainda nĂŁo existe um conhecimento explĂ­cito sobre as razĂ”es que levam as empresas a emitirem obrigaçÔes convertĂ­veis, assim como a forma como os investidores veem as empresas que as emitem. Esta investigação tem como objetivo fornecer mais informaçÔes sobre a perspetiva do investidor. Assim, sĂŁo realizadas entrevistas com investidores em obrigaçÔes convertĂ­veis, bem como um estudo de evento. As conclusĂ”es indiciam que os investidores tĂȘm perceçÔes diferentes e, como tal, nĂŁo concordam com todas as teorias. No entanto, estas fornecem informaçÔes adicionais sobre as reaçÔes dos investidores Ă  emissĂŁo de obrigaçÔes convertĂ­veis que podem ser Ășteis para as empresas. Assim, as mesmas podem compreender alguns dos sinais que enviam. Em particular, a investigação mostra que as obrigaçÔes convertĂ­veis verdes estĂŁo a tornar-se cada vez mais importantes para os investidores. AlĂ©m disso, o estudo de evento mostra uma clara diferença entre empresas maduras quando comparadas com empresas em crescimento. Embora o mercado reaja negativamente Ă  emissĂŁo de ambos os tipos de empresas, este efeito Ă© apenas temporĂĄrio para empresas em crescimento. Em sentido contrĂĄrio, Ă© consideravelmente mais permanente para empresas maduras. AlĂ©m disso, as empresas maduras tiveram um desempenho pior antes da emissĂŁo em termos de rendimentos mĂ©dios acumulados anormais do que as empresas em crescimento. Em geral, esta pesquisa fornece mais informação sobre as perceçÔes dos investidores e ajuda as empresas a compreender os sinais enviados pelas suas emissĂ”es de obrigaçÔes convertĂ­vei

    Cloning, Purification, and Partial Characterization of the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) Helicase

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    The MCM gene from the archaeon Halobacterium, with and without its intein, was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector, overexpressed and the protein was purified and antibodies were generated. The antibodies were used to demonstrate that in vivo only the processed enzyme, without the intein, could be detected

    Care for the chronically ill in Germany – The challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    The COVID-19 pandemic is posing major challenges to the health care sector. This scoping review compiles evidence concerning changes to health care service availability and utilisation as well as possible impacts on health for selected groups of chronically ill people in Germany. The focus is on cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and mental disorders. Most empirical data available concerned inpatient care and showed a clear decline in the utilisation of inpatient treatments in March and April 2020 in the areas of oncology and cardiology as well as in mental health. For cardiovascular emergencies such as heart attack and stroke, a decline was observed especially regarding less serious cases. Although there were indications of treatment delays, there was no evidence thus far that emergency care had been generally compromised due to adjustments to inpatient care capacities. In the outpatient setting, extensive adjustments to health care services availability were observed for all disease groups considered. Overall, very limited empirical data were available. In particular, hardly any data were available on how changes in care impacted population health. There is an urgent need for continuous surveillance and evaluation based on health care and epidemiological data.Peer Reviewe

    Care for the chronically ill in Germany – The challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    The COVID-19 pandemic is posing major challenges to the health care sector. This scoping review compiles evidence concerning changes to health care service availability and utilisation as well as possible impacts on health for selected groups of chronically ill people in Germany. The focus is on cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and mental disorders. Most empirical data available concerned inpatient care and showed a clear decline in the utilisation of inpatient treatments in March and April 2020 in the areas of oncology and cardiology as well as in mental health. For cardiovascular emergencies such as heart attack and stroke, a decline was observed especially regarding less serious cases. Although there were indications of treatment delays, there was no evidence thus far that emergency care had been generally compromised due to adjustments to inpatient care capacities. In the outpatient setting, extensive adjustments to health care services availability were observed for all disease groups considered. Overall, very limited empirical data were available. In particular, hardly any data were available on how changes in care impacted population health. There is an urgent need for continuous surveillance and evaluation based on health care and epidemiological data.Peer Reviewe

    Downregulation of miR-92a Is Associated with Aggressive Breast Cancer Features and Increased Tumour Macrophage Infiltration

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    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression on a posttranscriptional level. These regulatory RNAs have been implicated in numerous cellular processes and are further deregulated in different cancer types, including breast cancer. MiR-92a is part of the miR-17∌92 cluster, which was first reported to be linked to tumourigenesis. However, little is known about the expression of miR-92a in breast cancer and potential associations to tumour properties. The expression of miR-92a was therefore characterized in 144 invasive breast cancer samples using in situ hybridization and related to clinico-pathological data as well as to selected key properties of the tumour stroma, including the presence of macrophages (CD68) and cancer activated fibroblasts (alpha-SMA). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To measure miR-92a levels, an in situ hybridisation protocol was developed and validated using cell lines and miR-92a inhibitors. The expression in the tumour samples was objectively evaluated using digital image analysis program subtracting background activities. We found that the miR-92a expression varied between tumours and was inversely correlated to tumour grade (r = -0.276, p = 0.003) and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.008) and provided independent prognostic information in multivariate Cox analysis (HR: 0.375, CI: 0.145-0.972, p = 0.043). MiR-92a was moreover inversely correlated to the number of infiltrating macrophages in the tumour stroma (r = -0.357, p<0.001), and downregulation of miR-92a promoted cell migration (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that downregulation of miR-92a in breast cancer is linked to key epithelial and stromal properties as well as clinical outcome

    Versorgung von chronisch Kranken in Deutschland - Herausforderungen in Zeiten der COVID-19-Pandemie

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    Die medizinische Versorgung wird durch die COVID-19-Pandemie vor große Herausforderungen gestellt. Das vorliegende Scoping Review trĂ€gt Hinweise auf bisherige VerĂ€nderungen der Versorgungsangebote und der Inanspruchnahme sowie mögliche gesundheitliche Folgen fĂŒr ausgewĂ€hlte Gruppen chronisch kranker Menschen in Deutschland zusammen. Der Fokus liegt auf Krebserkrankungen, Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen, Diabetes mellitus und psychischen Störungen. Empirische Daten liegen ĂŒberwiegend fĂŒr den stationĂ€ren Bereich vor und zeigen einen deutlichen RĂŒckgang stationĂ€rer Behandlungen im MĂ€rz/April 2020 im Bereich der Onkologie und der Kardiologie sowie bei psychischen Störungen. FĂŒr kardiovaskulĂ€re NotfĂ€lle wie Herzinfarkt und Schlaganfall wurde ein RĂŒckgang vor allem bei leichteren FĂ€llen beobachtet. Bislang liegen einige Hinweise auf verzögerte Inanspruchnahme, jedoch keine Hinweise auf BeeintrĂ€chtigung der Notfallversorgung durch Anpassung stationĂ€rer VersorgungskapazitĂ€ten vor. Im ambulanten Bereich kam es fĂŒr alle betrachteten Krankheitsgruppen zu umfassenden Anpassungen der Versorgungsangebote. Die empirische Datenlage ist insgesamt noch sehr begrenzt. Insbesondere liegen kaum Daten zu gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen durch VerĂ€nderungen in der Versorgung vor. Es besteht dringender Bedarf fĂŒr kontinuierliche Begleit- und Evaluationsforschung auf der Basis von Versorgungsdaten und epidemiologischer Daten.Peer Reviewe

    Removing Systemic Barriers to Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion: Report of the 2019 Plant Science Research Network Workshop “Inclusivity in the Plant Sciences”

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    A future in which scientific discoveries are valued and trusted by the general public cannot be achieved without greater inclusion and participation of diverse communities. To envision a path towards this future, in January 2019 a diverse group of researchers, educators, students, and administrators gathered to hear and share personal perspectives on equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) in the plant sciences. From these broad perspectives, the group developed strategies and identified tactics to facilitate and support EDI within and beyond the plant science community. The workshop leveraged scenario planning and the richness of its participants to develop recommendations aimed at promoting systemic change at the institutional level through the actions of scientific societies, universities, and individuals and through new funding models to support research and training. While these initiatives were formulated specifically for the plant science community, they can also serve as a model to advance EDI in other disciplines. The proposed actions are thematically broad, integrating into discovery, applied and translational science, requiring and embracing multidisciplinarity, and giving voice to previously unheard perspectives. We offer a vision of barrier-free access to participation in science, and a plant science community that reflects the diversity of our rapidly changing nation, and supports and invests in the training and well-being of all its members. The relevance and robustness of our recommendations has been tested by dramatic and global events since the workshop. The time to act upon them is now
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