415 research outputs found

    Unemployment, Market Work and Household Production

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    Using time-diary data from four countries we show that the unemployed spend most of the time not working for pay in additional leisure and personal maintenance, not in increased household production. There is no relation between unemployment duration and the split of time between household production and leisure. U.S. data for 2003-2006 show that almost none of the lower amount of market work in areas of long-term high unemployment is offset by additional household production. In contrast, in those areas where unemployment has risen cyclically reduced market work is made up almost entirely by additional time spent in household production.unemployment, time use, household production, paid work

    Evidence on Unemployment, Market Work and Household Production

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    Time-diary data from four countries suggest that differences in market time between the unemployed and employed represent additional leisure and personal maintenance rather than increased household production. U.S. data for 2003-2006 show that almost none of the reduction in market work in areas of long-term high unemployment is offset by additional work at home. In contrast, in those areas where unemployment has risen cyclically, reduced market work is largely substituted by additional time in household production.unemployment, time use, household production, paid work

    Total work and gender facts and possible explanations

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    Time-diary data from 27 countries show a negative relationship between GDP per capita and gender differences in total workfor pay and at home. In rich non-Catholic countries men and women average about the same amount of total work. Survey results show scholars and the general public believe that women work more. Widespread average equality does not arise from gender differences in the price of time, intra-family bargaining or spousal complementarity. Several theories, including ones based on social norms, might explain these findings and are consistent with evidence from the World Values Surveys and microeconomic data from Australia and Germany.time use, gender differences,household production

    Different but Equal: Total Work, Gender and Social Norms in the EU and US Time Use.

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    Overall, the issue of whether Europeans are lazy or Americans are crazy seems of second-order importance relative to understanding the determinants of individual behavior. Amore useful, scientific approach is to assume that underlying tastes are common to both continents, while technologies, institutions, or interpersonal influences like norms or externalities may differ and evolve differently. The fact that Americans work on weekends or more often at odd hours of the day may simply represent a bad equilibrium that no individual agent can improve upon—and would certainly not wish to deviate from, given what all others are doing. Especially if norms and other externalities are important, one should recognize that the invisible hand may lead agents to places like this.

    Different but Equal: Total Work, Gender and Social Norms in EU and US Time Use.

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    Using time-diary data from 27 countries, we demonstrate a negative relationship between real GDP per capita and the female-male difference in total work time—the sum of work for pay and work at home. We also show that in rich non-Catholic countries on four continents men and women do the same amount of total work on average. Our survey results demonstrate that labor economists, macroeconomists, sociologists and the general public consistently believe that women perform more total work. The facts do not arise from gender differences in the price of time nor from differences in intra-family bargaining: Gender equality is not associated with marital status, and most of the variance in gender total work differences arises from within-couple differences. A theory of social norms could account for within-education group and within-region gender differences being smaller than inter-group differences. It is consistent with cross-national evidence from the World Values Surveys and various sets of microeconomic data.time use;gender differences;household production;paid work;

    UNDERSTANDING THE BENEFIT STRUCTURE OF CLOUD STORAGE AS A MEANS OF PERSONAL ARCHIVING - A CHOICE-BASED CONJOINT ANALYSIS

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    While cloud storage has seen an increasing rise in demand and diffusion, it is also becoming a commodity, which makes it more difficult for cloud storage providers to be competitive in the market. To be successful as a storage provider, it is crucial to understand customer preferences so that these can be addressed accordingly. In this paper, we investigate consumer cloud storage choice decisions by employing a conjoint analysis that is based on empirical data collected from 340 participants and analyzed by means of hierarchical Bayes estimation. Our findings indicate significant differences in consumer preferences for price, storage capacity, encryption mechanism and accessibility. Based on these differences, we derive three consumer clusters that also exhibit differences in, e.g., their privacy concerns and risk beliefs. Based on our findings, we highlight some practical implications that can aid cloud storage providers in service design and adjustment decisions. This study contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the benefit structure and trade-offs user make in the choice of storage services. As an alternative to commercial conjoint software packages, we further contribute a method that can be adopted by other scholars who seek to conduct conjoint analyses using free software

    Towards an Understanding of Needs, Capabilities and Alignment Mechanisms in Digital Preservation: Results from an Explorative Case Study

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    Today digital information is conceived as a firm’s most important asset whose availability cannot be taken for granted. As part of an effort to sustain its availability which is threatened by expeditiously changing technologies associated with the risk of obsolete software and hardware, digital preservation (DP) provides effective means. However, to date little is known about DP in the firm. Our study is the first to fill this gap and seeks to provide a deeper understanding of a firm’s DP needs, capabilities and alignment mechanisms. We use a multiple-case design to analyze three firms and adopt the information processing theory as our theoretical lens. We find lacking decision making procedures and organizational responsibilities hampering the alignment between DP needs and capabilities facilitating a culture of information hoarding. Based on the consolidated results we suggest a set of propositions to explain DP needs, capabilities and alignment mechanisms

    Reply to “Racial Differences in Time at Work Not Working” by William A. Darity Jr. et al.

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    This publication is with permission of the rights owner (Sage) freely accessible.Peer Reviewe

    Unemployment, Market Work and Household Production

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    Using time-diary data from four countries we show that the unemployed spend most of the time not working for pay in additional leisure and personal maintenance, not in increased household production. There is no relation between unemployment duration and the split of time between household production and leisure. U.S. data for 2003-2006 show that almost none of the lower amount of market work in areas of long-term high unemployment is offset by additional household production. In contrast, in those areas where unemployment has risen cyclically reduced market work is made up almost entirely by additional time spent in household production.

    The 3.4-kDa Ost4 protein is required for the assembly of two distinct oligosaccharyltransferase complexes in yeast

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    In the central reaction of N-linked glycosylation, the oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase) complex catalyzes the transfer of a lipid-linked core oligosaccharide onto asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae OTase has been shown to consist of at least eight subunits. We analyzed this enzyme complex, applying the technique of blue native gel electrophoresis. Using available antibodies, six different subunits were detected in the wild-type (wt) complex, including Stt3p, Ost1p, Wbp1p, Swp1p, Ost3p, and Ost6p. We demonstrate that the small 3.4-kDa subunit Ost4p is required for the incorporation of either Ost3p or Ost6p into the complex, resulting in two, functionally distinct OTase complexes in vivo. Ost3p and Ost6p are not absolutely required for OTase activity, but modulate the affinity of the enzyme toward different protein substrate
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