767 research outputs found

    Particle-wall collision statistics in the open circular billiard

    Full text link
    In the open circular billiard particles are placed initially with a uniform distribution in their positions inside a planar circular vesicle. They all have velocities of the same magnitude, whose initial directions are also uniformly distributed. No particle-particle interactions are included, only specular elastic collisions of the particles with the wall of the vesicle. The particles may escape through an aperture with an angle 2δ2\delta. The collisions of the particles with the wall are characterized by the angular position and the angle of incidence. We study the evolution of the system considering the probability distributions of these variables at successive times nn the particle reaches the border of the vesicle. These distributions are calculated analytically and measured in numerical simulations. For finite apertures δ<π/2\delta<\pi/2, a particular set of initial conditions exists for which the particles are in periodic orbits and never escape the vesicle. This set is of zero measure, but the selection of angular momenta close to these orbits is observed after some collisions, and thus the distributions of probability have a structure formed by peaks. We calculate the marginal distributions up to n=4n=4, but for δ>π/2\delta>\pi/2 a solution is found for arbitrary nn. The escape probability as a function of n1n^{-1} decays with an exponent 4 for δ>π/2\delta>\pi/2 and evidences for a power law decay are found for lower apertures as well.Comment: 11 pages, 14 figures. Typos corrected and two new figures added, figure captions changed and additional discussions added. Version accepted for publication in Physica