129 research outputs found

### Computing an Evolutionary Ordering is Hard

We prove that computing an evolutionary ordering of a family of sets, i.e. an
ordering where each set intersects with --but is not included in-- the union
earlier sets, is NP-hard

### Pancake Flipping is Hard

Pancake Flipping is the problem of sorting a stack of pancakes of different
sizes (that is, a permutation), when the only allowed operation is to insert a
spatula anywhere in the stack and to flip the pancakes above it (that is, to
perform a prefix reversal). In the burnt variant, one side of each pancake is
marked as burnt, and it is required to finish with all pancakes having the
burnt side down. Computing the optimal scenario for any stack of pancakes and
determining the worst-case stack for any stack size have been challenges over
more than three decades. Beyond being an intriguing combinatorial problem in
itself, it also yields applications, e.g. in parallel computing and
computational biology. In this paper, we show that the Pancake Flipping
problem, in its original (unburnt) variant, is NP-hard, thus answering the
long-standing question of its computational complexity.Comment: Corrected reference

### The tree-child network problem and the shortest common supersequences for permutations are NP-hard

Reconstructing phylogenetic networks presents a significant and complex
challenge within the fields of phylogenetics and genome evolution. One strategy
for reconstruction of phylogenetic networks is to solve the phylogenetic
network problem, which involves inferring phylogenetic trees first and
subsequently computing the smallest phylogenetic network that displays all the
trees. This approach capitalizes on exceptional tools available for inferring
phylogenetic trees from biomolecular sequences. Since the vast space of
phylogenetic networks poses difficulties in obtaining comprehensive sampling,
the researchers switch their attention to inferring tree-child networks from
multiple phylogenetic trees, where in a tree-child network each non-leaf node
must have at least one child that is a tree node (i.e. indegree-one node). We
prove that the tree-child network problem for multiple trees remains NP-hard by
a reduction from the shortest common supersequnece problem for permuations and
proving that the latter is NP-hard.Comment: 3 figures and 11 page

### The Complexity of Finding Effectors

The NP-hard EFFECTORS problem on directed graphs is motivated by applications
in network mining, particularly concerning the analysis of probabilistic
information-propagation processes in social networks. In the corresponding
model the arcs carry probabilities and there is a probabilistic diffusion
process activating nodes by neighboring activated nodes with probabilities as
specified by the arcs. The point is to explain a given network activation state
as well as possible by using a minimum number of "effector nodes"; these are
selected before the activation process starts.
We correct, complement, and extend previous work from the data mining
community by a more thorough computational complexity analysis of EFFECTORS,
identifying both tractable and intractable cases. To this end, we also exploit
a parameterization measuring the "degree of randomness" (the number of "really"
probabilistic arcs) which might prove useful for analyzing other probabilistic
network diffusion problems as well.Comment: 28 page

### Consensus Strings with Small Maximum Distance and Small Distance Sum

The parameterised complexity of consensus string problems (Closest String, Closest Substring, Closest String with Outliers) is investigated in a more general setting, i. e., with a bound on the maximum Hamming distance and a bound on the sum of Hamming distances between solution and input strings. We completely settle the parameterised complexity of these generalised variants of Closest String and Closest Substring, and partly for Closest String with Outliers; in addition, we answer some open questions from the literature regarding the classical problem variants with only one distance bound. Finally, we investigate the question of polynomial kernels and respective lower bounds

### Decomposing Cubic Graphs into Connected Subgraphs of Size Three

Let $S=\{K_{1,3},K_3,P_4\}$ be the set of connected graphs of size 3. We
study the problem of partitioning the edge set of a graph $G$ into graphs taken
from any non-empty $S'\subseteq S$. The problem is known to be NP-complete for
any possible choice of $S'$ in general graphs. In this paper, we assume that
the input graph is cubic, and study the computational complexity of the problem
of partitioning its edge set for any choice of $S'$. We identify all polynomial
and NP-complete problems in that setting, and give graph-theoretic
characterisations of $S'$-decomposable cubic graphs in some cases.Comment: to appear in the proceedings of COCOON 201

### Beyond Adjacency Maximization: Scaffold Filling for New String Distances

International audienceIn Genomic Scaffold Filling, one aims at polishing in silico a draft genome, called scaffold. The scaffold is given in the form of an ordered set of gene sequences, called contigs. This is done by confronting the scaffold to an already complete reference genome from a close species. More precisely, given a scaffold S, a reference genome G and a score function f () between two genomes, the aim is to complete S by adding the missing genes from G so that the obtained complete genome S * optimizes f (S * , G). In this paper, we extend a model of Jiang et al. [CPM 2016] (i) by allowing the insertions of strings instead of single characters (i.e., some groups of genes may be forced to be inserted together) and (ii) by considering two alternative score functions: the first generalizes the notion of common adjacencies by maximizing the number of common k-mers between S * and G (k-Mer Scaffold Filling), the second aims at minimizing the number of breakpoints between S * and G (Min-Breakpoint Scaffold Filling). We study these problems from the parameterized complexity point of view, providing fixed-parameter (FPT) algorithms for both problems. In particular, we show that k-Mer Scaffold Filling is FPT wrt. parameter , the number of additional k-mers realized by the completion of Sâthis answers an open question of Jiang et al. [CPM 2016]. We also show that Min-Breakpoint Scaffold Filling is FPT wrt. a parameter combining the number of missing genes, the number of gene repetitions and the target distance

### A New Parametrization for Independent Set Reconfiguration and Applications to RNA Kinetics

International audienceIn this paper, we study the Independent Set (IS) reconfiguration problem in graphs. An IS reconfiguration is a scenario transforming an IS L into another IS R, inserting/removing vertices one step at a time while keeping the cardinalities of intermediate sets greater than a specified threshold. We focus on the bipartite variant where only start and end vertices are allowed in intermediate ISs. Our motivation is an application to the RNA energy barrier problem from bioinformatics, for which a natural parameter would be the difference between the initial IS size and the threshold. We first show the para-NP hardness of the problem with respect to this parameter. We then investigate a new parameter, the cardinality range, denoted by Ï which captures the maximum deviation of the reconfiguration scenario from optimal sets (formally, Ï is the maximum difference between the cardinalities of an intermediate IS and an optimal IS). We give two different routes to show that this problem is in XP for Ï: The first is a direct O(n 2)-space, O(n 2Ï+2.5)-time algorithm based on a separation lemma; The second builds on a parameterized equivalence with the directed pathwidth problem, leading to a O(n Ï+1)-space, O(n Ï+2)-time algorithm for the reconfiguration problem through an adaptation of a prior result by Tamaki [20]. This equivalence is an interesting result in its own right, connecting a reconfiguration problem (which is essentially a connectivity problem within a reconfiguration network) with a structural parameter for an auxiliary graph. We demonstrate the practicality of these algorithms, and the relevance of our introduced parameter, by considering the application of our algorithms on random small-degree instances for our problem. Moreover, we reformulate the computation of the energy barrier between two RNA secondary structures, a classic hard problem in computational biology, as an instance of bipartite reconfiguration. Our results on IS reconfiguration thus yield an XP algorithm in O(n Ï+2) for the energy barrier problem, improving upon a partial O(n 2Ï+2.5) algorithm for the problem

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