3,291 research outputs found

    Quiet Sun magnetic fields observed by Hinode: Support for a local dynamo

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    The Hinode mission has revealed copious amounts of horizontal flux covering the quiet Sun. Local dynamo action has been proposed to explain the presence of this flux. We sought to test whether the quiet Sun flux detected by Hinode is due to a local or the global dynamo by studying long-term variations in the polarisation signals detectable at the disc centre of the quiet Sun between November 2006 and May 2012, with particular emphasis on weak signals in the internetwork. The investigation focusses on line-integrated circular polarisation V_tot and linear polarisation LP_tot profiles obtained from the Fe I 6302.5 \AA absorption line in Hinode SOT/SP. Both circular and linear polarisation signals show no overall variation in the fraction of selected pixels from 2006 until 2012. There is also no variation in the magnetic flux in this interval of time. The probability density functions (PDF) of the line-of-sight magnetic flux can be fitted with a power law from 1.17 x 10^17 Mx to 8.53 x 10^18 Mx with index \alpha=-1.82 \pm 0.02 in 2007. The variation of \alpha 's across all years does not exceed a significance of 1\sigma. Linearly polarised features are also fitted with a power law, with index \alpha=-2.60 \pm 0.06 in 2007. Indices derived from linear polarisation PDFs of other years also show no significant variation. Our results show that the ubiquitous horizontal polarisation on the edges of bright granules seen by Hinode are invariant during the minimum of cycle 23. This supports the notion that the weak circular and linear polarisation is primarily caused by an independent local dynamo

    Systematic search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars

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    Context. It has been suggested that the bow shocks of runaway stars are sources of high-energy gamma rays (E > 100 MeV). Theoretical models predicting high-energy gamma-ray emission from these sources were followed by the first detection of non-thermal radio emission from the bow shock of BD+43^\deg 3654 and non-thermal X-ray emission from the bow shock of AE Aurigae. Aims. We perform the first systematic search for MeV and GeV emission from 27 bow shocks of runaway stars using data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Methods. We analysed 57 months of Fermi-LAT data at the positions of 27 bow shocks of runaway stars extracted from the Extensive stellar BOw Shock Survey catalogue (E-BOSS). A likelihood analysis was performed to search for gamma-ray emission that is not compatible with diffuse background or emission from neighbouring sources and that could be associated with the bow shocks. Results. None of the bow shock candidates is detected significantly in the Fermi-LAT energy range. We therefore present upper limits on the high-energy emission in the energy range from 100 MeV to 300 GeV for 27 bow shocks of runaway stars in four energy bands. For the three cases where models of the high-energy emission are published we compare our upper limits to the modelled spectra. Our limits exclude the model predictions for Zeta Ophiuchi by a factor ≈\approx 5.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, 1 table, accepted by A&

    Competition policy and exit rates: evidence from Switzerland

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    This paper provides evidence on the relation between the intensity of product-market competition and the probability of exit. We adopt a natural experiment approach to analyze the impact of a tightening of Swiss antitrust legislation on exit probabilities. Based on a sample of more than 68,000 firms from all major sectors of the Swiss economy, we find that the exit probability of non-exporting firms increased significantly, whereas the exit probability of exporting firms remained largely unaffected. Our results support the notion that there is a positive relationship between the intensity of product-market competition and the probability of exi

    From Digital Library to Institutional Repository: A Brief Look at One Library’s Path

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    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the initial transformation of one academic library’s digital media library into the institutional repository (IR) of its entire academic organization. Design/methodology/approach – Description of an academic digital library’s evolution into an institutional repository, accompanied by both practical and philosophical analyses. Findings – Materials supporting an academic institution’s scholarship (from colleges and from supporting organizations on campus) can play an important part in the success of an institutional repository. Standards for metadata content, data structures and hierarchies of collections must be followed consistently, and adequate storage for digital media within an institutional repository is necessary to have in advance of anticipated demand for the smooth operation of the IR and continued access to materials. Gray areas between the role of an institutional repository and the role of that organization’s archives need to be addressed in the future. Practical implications – Academic libraries can be highly successful in producing an institute repository by developing relationships with various organizations on campus in addition to the academic programs. Maintaining standards throughout the IR is crucial to future growth in an organized and consistent manner. Philosophical considerations of the role of the IR should be addressed in the beginning stages of the development of the IR for eliminating confusion and duplication of its contents with other campus organizations. Originality/value – This paper describes the development of a digital library, created and maintained by an academic library, and its gradual change into a de facto institutional repository. Other libraries in the planning stages or initial steps of creating a campus-wide digital library or an institutional repository can benefit from the description of possible successes and problems that they could encounter during implementation

    Are elevated moist layers a blind spot for hyperspectral infrared sounders? A model study

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    The ability of the hyperspectral satellite-based passive infrared (IR) instrument IASI to resolve elevated moist layers (EMLs) within the free troposphere is investigated. EMLs are strong moisture anomalies with significant impact on the radiative heating rate profile and typically coupled to freezing level detrainment from convective cells in the tropics. A previous case study by indicated inherent deficiencies of passive satellite-based remote sensing instruments in resolving an EML. In this work, we first put the findings of into the context of other retrieval case studies of EML-like structures, showing that such structures can in principle be retrieved, but retrievability depends on the retrieval method and the exact retrieval setup. To approach a first more systematic analysis of EML retrievability, we introduce our own basic optimal estimation (OEM) retrieval, which for the purpose of this study is based on forward-modelled (synthetic) clear-sky observations. By applying the OEM retrieval to the same EML case as , we find that a lack of independent temperature information can significantly deteriorate the humidity retrieval due to a strong temperature inversion at the EML top. However, we show that by employing a wider spectral range of the hyperspectral IR observation, this issue can be avoided and EMLs can generally be resolved. We introduce a new framework for the identification and characterization of moisture anomalies, a subset of which are EMLs, to specifically quantify the retrieval's ability to capture moisture anomalies. The new framework is applied to 1288 synthetic retrievals of tropical ocean short-range forecast model atmospheres, allowing for a direct statistical comparison of moisture anomalies between the retrieval and the reference dataset. With our basic OEM retrieval, we find that retrieved moisture anomalies are on average 17 % weaker and 15 % thicker than their true counterparts. We attribute this to the retrieval smoothing error and the fact that rather weak and narrow moisture anomalies are most frequently missed by the retrieval. Smoothing is found to also constrain the magnitude of local heating rate extremes associated with moisture anomalies, particularly for the strongest anomalies that are found in the lower to mid troposphere. In total, about 80 % of moisture anomalies in the reference dataset are found by the retrieval. Below 5 km altitude, this fraction is only of the order of 52 %. We conclude that the retrieval of lower- to mid-tropospheric moisture anomalies, in particular of EMLs, is possible when the anomaly is sufficiently strong and its thickness is at least of the order of about 1.5 km. This study sets the methodological basis for more comprehensively investigating EMLs based on real hyperspectral IR observations and their operational products in the future
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