989 research outputs found

### Structural Basis for the Anomalously Low Spontaneous Polarisation Values of the Polar Phase of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 (x=0.02, 0.04): Evidence for a Ferrielectric Ordering

Full pattern Le-Bail refinement using x-ray powder diffraction profiles of
Sr1-xCaxTiO3 for x=0.02, 0.04 in the temperature range 12 to 300 K reveals
anomalies in the unit cell parameters at 170, 225 K due to an
antiferrodistortive (cubic to tetragonal I4/mcm) phase transition and at ~32,
~34 K due to a transition to a polar phase (tetragonal I4/mcm to orthorhombic
Ic2m), respectively. The lower transition temperatures obtained by us are in
excellent agreement with those reported on the basis of the dielectric studies
by Bednorz and Muller, [10] who attributed these to ferroelectric transition.
Rietveld analysis of the diffraction profiles of the polar phase reveals
off-centre displacements of both Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ti4+ ions in the X-Y plane along
pseudocubic directions, in agreement with the experimentally reported
direction of easy polarization by Bednorz and Muller, but the resulting dipole
moments are shown to be ferrielectrically coupled in the neighbouring (001)
planes along the [001] direction leading to anomalously low values of the
spontaneous polarization at 12K.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures and 1 tabl

### Direct administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin into guinea pig cochleae: Effects on physiological and histological measurements

<p>Cochlear response measurements from two different animals made before (red) and after (blue) treatment with HPβCD (Panel A) and TTX (Panel B) to 80 dB SPL 4 kHz tone bursts. Cochlear response waveform maintained CAP-like morphology after HPβCD treatment, consistent with reduced mechanical drive to neural excitation (Panel B, blue). In contrast, response waveform is EPSP-like following TTX treatment. Unlike TTX, results from HPβCD do not support the hypothesis that the auditory nerve is a site of action for 13 mM HPβCD.</p

### Improved outer boundary conditions for Einstein's field equations

In a recent article, we constructed a hierarchy B_L of outer boundary
conditions for Einstein's field equations with the property that, for a
spherical outer boundary, it is perfectly absorbing for linearized
gravitational radiation up to a given angular momentum number L. In this
article, we generalize B_2 so that it can be applied to fairly general
foliations of spacetime by space-like hypersurfaces and general outer boundary
shapes and further, we improve B_2 in two steps: (i) we give a local boundary
condition C_2 which is perfectly absorbing including first order contributions
in 2M/R of curvature corrections for quadrupolar waves (where M is the mass of
the spacetime and R is a typical radius of the outer boundary) and which
significantly reduces spurious reflections due to backscatter, and (ii) we give
a non-local boundary condition D_2 which is exact when first order corrections
in 2M/R for both curvature and backscatter are considered, for quadrupolar
radiation.Comment: accepted Class. Quant. Grav. numerical relativity special issue; 17
pages and 1 figur

### Design Evaluation of High Reliability Lithium Batteries

Within one year, a lithium battery design can be qualified for device use through the application of accelerated discharge testing, calorimetry measurements, real time tests and other supplemental testing. Materials and corrosion testing verify that the battery components remain functional during expected battery life. By combining these various methods, a high reliability lithium battery can be manufactured for applications which require zero defect battery performance

### Effects of cochlear implantation on binaural hearing in adults with unilateral hearing loss

A FDA clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the potential benefit of cochlear implant (CI) use for adults with unilateral moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Subjects were 20 adults with moderate-to-profound unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and normal or near-normal hearing on the other side. A MED-EL standard electrode was implanted in the impaired ear. Outcome measures included: (a) sound localization on the horizontal plane (11 positions, −90° to 90°), (b) word recognition in quiet with the CI alone, and (c) masked sentence recognition with the target at 0° and the masker at −90°, 0°, or 90°. This battery was completed preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after CI activation. Normative data were also collected for 20 age-matched control subjects with normal or near-normal hearing bilaterally. The CI improved localization accuracy and reduced side bias. Word recognition with the CI alone was similar to performance of traditional CI recipients. The CI improved masked sentence recognition when the masker was presented from the front or from the side of normal or near-normal hearing. The binaural benefits observed with the CI increased between the 1- and 3-month intervals but appeared stable thereafter. In contrast to previous reports on localization and speech perception in patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, CI benefits were consistently observed across individual subjects, and performance was at asymptote by the 3-month test interval. Cochlear implant settings, consistent CI use, and short duration of deafness could play a role in this result

### Electrostatic Patch Effect in Cylindrical Geometry. III. Torques

We continue to study the effect of uneven voltage distribution on two close
cylindrical conductors with parallel axes started in our papers [1] and [2],
now to find the electrostatic torques. We calculate the electrostatic potential
and energy to lowest order in the gap to cylinder radius ratio for an arbitrary
relative rotation of the cylinders about their symmetry axis. By energy
conservation, the axial torque, independent of the uniform voltage difference,
is found as a derivative of the energy in the rotation angle. We also derive
both the axial and slanting torques by the surface integration method: the
torque vector is the integral over the cylinder surface of the cross product of
the electrostatic force on a surface element and its position vector. The
slanting torque consists of two parts: one coming from the interaction between
the patch and the uniform voltages, and the other due to the patch interaction.
General properties of the torques are described. A convenient model of a
localized patch suggested in [2] is used to calculate the torques explicitly in
terms of elementary functions. Based on this, we analyze in detail patch
interaction for one pair of patches, namely, the torque dependence on the patch
parameters (width and strength) and their mutual positions. The effect of the
axial torque is then studied for the experimental conditions of the STEP
mission.Comment: 28 pages, 6 Figures. Submitted to Classical Quantum Gravit

### Testing outer boundary treatments for the Einstein equations

Various methods of treating outer boundaries in numerical relativity are
compared using a simple test problem: a Schwarzschild black hole with an
outgoing gravitational wave perturbation. Numerical solutions computed using
different boundary treatments are compared to a `reference' numerical solution
obtained by placing the outer boundary at a very large radius. For each
boundary treatment, the full solutions including constraint violations and
extracted gravitational waves are compared to those of the reference solution,
thereby assessing the reflections caused by the artificial boundary. These
tests use a first-order generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein
equations. Constraint-preserving boundary conditions for this system are
reviewed, and an improved boundary condition on the gauge degrees of freedom is
presented. Alternate boundary conditions evaluated here include freezing the
incoming characteristic fields, Sommerfeld boundary conditions, and the
constraint-preserving boundary conditions of Kreiss and Winicour. Rather
different approaches to boundary treatments, such as sponge layers and spatial
compactification, are also tested. Overall the best treatment found here
combines boundary conditions that preserve the constraints, freeze the
Newman-Penrose scalar Psi_0, and control gauge reflections.Comment: Modified to agree with version accepted for publication in Class.
Quantum Gra

### Targeting of ALK2, a Receptor for Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Using the Cre/lox System to Enhance Osseous Regeneration by Adipose‐Derived Stem Cells

Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/135224/1/sct320143111375.pd

### An axisymmetric evolution code for the Einstein equations on hyperboloidal slices

We present the first stable dynamical numerical evolutions of the Einstein
equations in terms of a conformally rescaled metric on hyperboloidal
hypersurfaces extending to future null infinity. Axisymmetry is imposed in
order to reduce the computational cost. The formulation is based on an earlier
axisymmetric evolution scheme, adapted to time slices of constant mean
curvature. Ideas from a previous study by Moncrief and the author are applied
in order to regularize the formally singular evolution equations at future null
infinity. Long-term stable and convergent evolutions of Schwarzschild spacetime
are obtained, including a gravitational perturbation. The Bondi news function
is evaluated at future null infinity.Comment: 21 pages, 4 figures. Minor additions, updated to agree with journal
versio

### Optical cavity tests of Lorentz invariance for the electron

A hypothetical violation of Lorentz invariance in the electrons' equation of
motion (expressed within the Lorentz-violating extension of the standard model)
leads to a change of the geometry of crystals and thus shifts the resonance
frequency of an electromagnetic cavity. This allows experimental tests of
Lorentz invariance of the electron sector of the standard model. The material
dependence of the effect allows to separate it from an additional shift caused
by Lorentz violation in electrodynamics, and to place independent limits on
both effects. From present experiments, upper limits on Lorentz violation in
the electrons' kinetic energy term are deduced.Comment: 17 pages revte

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