989 research outputs found

    Structural Basis for the Anomalously Low Spontaneous Polarisation Values of the Polar Phase of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 (x=0.02, 0.04): Evidence for a Ferrielectric Ordering

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    Full pattern Le-Bail refinement using x-ray powder diffraction profiles of Sr1-xCaxTiO3 for x=0.02, 0.04 in the temperature range 12 to 300 K reveals anomalies in the unit cell parameters at 170, 225 K due to an antiferrodistortive (cubic to tetragonal I4/mcm) phase transition and at ~32, ~34 K due to a transition to a polar phase (tetragonal I4/mcm to orthorhombic Ic2m), respectively. The lower transition temperatures obtained by us are in excellent agreement with those reported on the basis of the dielectric studies by Bednorz and Muller, [10] who attributed these to ferroelectric transition. Rietveld analysis of the diffraction profiles of the polar phase reveals off-centre displacements of both Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ti4+ ions in the X-Y plane along pseudocubic directions, in agreement with the experimentally reported direction of easy polarization by Bednorz and Muller, but the resulting dipole moments are shown to be ferrielectrically coupled in the neighbouring (001) planes along the [001] direction leading to anomalously low values of the spontaneous polarization at 12K.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures and 1 tabl

    Direct administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin into guinea pig cochleae: Effects on physiological and histological measurements

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    <p>Cochlear response measurements from two different animals made before (red) and after (blue) treatment with HPβCD (Panel A) and TTX (Panel B) to 80 dB SPL 4 kHz tone bursts. Cochlear response waveform maintained CAP-like morphology after HPβCD treatment, consistent with reduced mechanical drive to neural excitation (Panel B, blue). In contrast, response waveform is EPSP-like following TTX treatment. Unlike TTX, results from HPβCD do not support the hypothesis that the auditory nerve is a site of action for 13 mM HPβCD.</p

    Improved outer boundary conditions for Einstein's field equations

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    In a recent article, we constructed a hierarchy B_L of outer boundary conditions for Einstein's field equations with the property that, for a spherical outer boundary, it is perfectly absorbing for linearized gravitational radiation up to a given angular momentum number L. In this article, we generalize B_2 so that it can be applied to fairly general foliations of spacetime by space-like hypersurfaces and general outer boundary shapes and further, we improve B_2 in two steps: (i) we give a local boundary condition C_2 which is perfectly absorbing including first order contributions in 2M/R of curvature corrections for quadrupolar waves (where M is the mass of the spacetime and R is a typical radius of the outer boundary) and which significantly reduces spurious reflections due to backscatter, and (ii) we give a non-local boundary condition D_2 which is exact when first order corrections in 2M/R for both curvature and backscatter are considered, for quadrupolar radiation.Comment: accepted Class. Quant. Grav. numerical relativity special issue; 17 pages and 1 figur

    Design Evaluation of High Reliability Lithium Batteries

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    Within one year, a lithium battery design can be qualified for device use through the application of accelerated discharge testing, calorimetry measurements, real time tests and other supplemental testing. Materials and corrosion testing verify that the battery components remain functional during expected battery life. By combining these various methods, a high reliability lithium battery can be manufactured for applications which require zero defect battery performance

    Effects of cochlear implantation on binaural hearing in adults with unilateral hearing loss

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    A FDA clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the potential benefit of cochlear implant (CI) use for adults with unilateral moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Subjects were 20 adults with moderate-to-profound unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and normal or near-normal hearing on the other side. A MED-EL standard electrode was implanted in the impaired ear. Outcome measures included: (a) sound localization on the horizontal plane (11 positions, −90° to 90°), (b) word recognition in quiet with the CI alone, and (c) masked sentence recognition with the target at 0° and the masker at −90°, 0°, or 90°. This battery was completed preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after CI activation. Normative data were also collected for 20 age-matched control subjects with normal or near-normal hearing bilaterally. The CI improved localization accuracy and reduced side bias. Word recognition with the CI alone was similar to performance of traditional CI recipients. The CI improved masked sentence recognition when the masker was presented from the front or from the side of normal or near-normal hearing. The binaural benefits observed with the CI increased between the 1- and 3-month intervals but appeared stable thereafter. In contrast to previous reports on localization and speech perception in patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss, CI benefits were consistently observed across individual subjects, and performance was at asymptote by the 3-month test interval. Cochlear implant settings, consistent CI use, and short duration of deafness could play a role in this result

    Electrostatic Patch Effect in Cylindrical Geometry. III. Torques

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    We continue to study the effect of uneven voltage distribution on two close cylindrical conductors with parallel axes started in our papers [1] and [2], now to find the electrostatic torques. We calculate the electrostatic potential and energy to lowest order in the gap to cylinder radius ratio for an arbitrary relative rotation of the cylinders about their symmetry axis. By energy conservation, the axial torque, independent of the uniform voltage difference, is found as a derivative of the energy in the rotation angle. We also derive both the axial and slanting torques by the surface integration method: the torque vector is the integral over the cylinder surface of the cross product of the electrostatic force on a surface element and its position vector. The slanting torque consists of two parts: one coming from the interaction between the patch and the uniform voltages, and the other due to the patch interaction. General properties of the torques are described. A convenient model of a localized patch suggested in [2] is used to calculate the torques explicitly in terms of elementary functions. Based on this, we analyze in detail patch interaction for one pair of patches, namely, the torque dependence on the patch parameters (width and strength) and their mutual positions. The effect of the axial torque is then studied for the experimental conditions of the STEP mission.Comment: 28 pages, 6 Figures. Submitted to Classical Quantum Gravit

    Testing outer boundary treatments for the Einstein equations

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    Various methods of treating outer boundaries in numerical relativity are compared using a simple test problem: a Schwarzschild black hole with an outgoing gravitational wave perturbation. Numerical solutions computed using different boundary treatments are compared to a `reference' numerical solution obtained by placing the outer boundary at a very large radius. For each boundary treatment, the full solutions including constraint violations and extracted gravitational waves are compared to those of the reference solution, thereby assessing the reflections caused by the artificial boundary. These tests use a first-order generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations. Constraint-preserving boundary conditions for this system are reviewed, and an improved boundary condition on the gauge degrees of freedom is presented. Alternate boundary conditions evaluated here include freezing the incoming characteristic fields, Sommerfeld boundary conditions, and the constraint-preserving boundary conditions of Kreiss and Winicour. Rather different approaches to boundary treatments, such as sponge layers and spatial compactification, are also tested. Overall the best treatment found here combines boundary conditions that preserve the constraints, freeze the Newman-Penrose scalar Psi_0, and control gauge reflections.Comment: Modified to agree with version accepted for publication in Class. Quantum Gra

    An axisymmetric evolution code for the Einstein equations on hyperboloidal slices

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    We present the first stable dynamical numerical evolutions of the Einstein equations in terms of a conformally rescaled metric on hyperboloidal hypersurfaces extending to future null infinity. Axisymmetry is imposed in order to reduce the computational cost. The formulation is based on an earlier axisymmetric evolution scheme, adapted to time slices of constant mean curvature. Ideas from a previous study by Moncrief and the author are applied in order to regularize the formally singular evolution equations at future null infinity. Long-term stable and convergent evolutions of Schwarzschild spacetime are obtained, including a gravitational perturbation. The Bondi news function is evaluated at future null infinity.Comment: 21 pages, 4 figures. Minor additions, updated to agree with journal versio

    Optical cavity tests of Lorentz invariance for the electron

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    A hypothetical violation of Lorentz invariance in the electrons' equation of motion (expressed within the Lorentz-violating extension of the standard model) leads to a change of the geometry of crystals and thus shifts the resonance frequency of an electromagnetic cavity. This allows experimental tests of Lorentz invariance of the electron sector of the standard model. The material dependence of the effect allows to separate it from an additional shift caused by Lorentz violation in electrodynamics, and to place independent limits on both effects. From present experiments, upper limits on Lorentz violation in the electrons' kinetic energy term are deduced.Comment: 17 pages revte
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