11,296 research outputs found

    Hypersonic test facility Patent

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    Hypersonic test facility for studying ablation in models under high pressure and high temperatur

    Kinetic pathways of multi-phase surfactant systems

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    The relaxation following a temperature quench of two-phase (lamellar and sponge phase) and three-phase (lamellar, sponge and micellar phase) samples, has been studied in an SDS/octanol/brine system. In the three-phase case we have observed samples that are initially mainly sponge phase with lamellar and micellar phase on the top and bottom respectively. Upon decreasing temperature most of the volume of the sponge phase is replaced by lamellar phase. During the equilibriation we have observed three regimes of behaviour within the sponge phase: (i) disruption in the sponge texture, then (ii) after the sponge phase homogenises there is a lamellar nucleation regime and finally (iii) a bizarre plume connects the lamellar phase with the micellar phase. The relaxation of the two-phase sample proceeds instead in two stages. First lamellar drops nucleate in the sponge phase forming a onion `gel' structure. Over time the lamellar structure compacts while equilibriating into a two phase lamellar/sponge phase sample. We offer possible explanatioins for some of these observations in the context of a general theory for phase kinetics in systems with one fast and one slow variable.Comment: 1 textfile, 20 figures (jpg), to appear in PR

    Instability of Myelin Tubes under Dehydration: deswelling of layered cylindrical structures

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    We report experimental observations of an undulational instability of myelin figures. Motivated by this, we examine theoretically the deformation and possible instability of concentric, cylindrical, multi-lamellar membrane structures. Under conditions of osmotic stress (swelling or dehydration), we find a stable, deformed state in which the layer deformation is given by \delta R ~ r^{\sqrt{B_A/(hB)}}, where B_A is the area compression modulus, B is the inter-layer compression modulus, and h is the repeat distance of layers. Also, above a finite threshold of dehydration (or osmotic stress), we find that the system becomes unstable to undulations, first with a characteristic wavelength of order \sqrt{xi d_0}, where xi is the standard smectic penetration depth and d_0 is the thickness of dehydrated region.Comment: 5 pages + 3 figures [revtex 4

    Coiling Instability of Multilamellar Membrane Tubes with Anchored Polymers

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    We study experimentally a coiling instability of cylindrical multilamellar stacks of phospholipid membranes, induced by polymers with hydrophobic anchors grafted along their hydrophilic backbone. Our system is unique in that coils form in the absence of both twist and adhesion. We interpret our experimental results in terms of a model in which local membrane curvature and polymer concentration are coupled. The model predicts the occurrence of maximally tight coils above a threshold polymer occupancy. A proper comparison between the model and experiment involved imaging of projections from simulated coiled tubes with maximal curvature and complicated torsions.Comment: 11 pages + 7 GIF figures + 10 JPEG figure

    Coiling Instabilities in Multilamellar Tubes

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    Myelin figures are densely packed stacks of coaxial cylindrical bilayers that are unstable to the formation of coils or double helices. These myelin figures appear to have no intrinsic chirality. We show that such cylindrical membrane stacks can develop an instability when they acquire a spontaneous curvature or when the equilibrium distance between membranes is decreased. This instability breaks the chiral symmetry of the stack and may result in coiling. A unilamellar cylindrical vesicle, on the other hand, will develop an axisymmetric instability, possibly related to the pearling instability.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figure

    Distributing the burdens of climate change

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    Global climate change raises many questions for environmental political theorists. This article focuses on the question of identifying the agents that should bear the financial burden of preventing dangerous climate change. Identifying in a fair way the agents that should take the lead in climate mitigation and adaptation, as well as the precise burdens that these parties must bear, will be a key aspect of the next generation of global climate policies. After a critical review of a number of rival approaches to burden sharing, the paper argues that only a principled and philosophically robust reconciliation of three approaches to burden sharing (‘contribution to problem’, ‘ability to pay’ and ‘beneficiary pays’) can generate a satisfactory mix of theoretical coherence and practical application
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