2,302 research outputs found

    A fast high-order solver for problems of scattering by heterogeneous bodies

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    A new high-order integral algorithm for the solution of scattering problems by heterogeneous bodies is presented. Here, a scatterer is described by a (continuously or discontinuously) varying refractive index n(x) within a two-dimensional (2D) bounded region; solutions of the associated Helmholtz equation under given incident fields are then obtained by high-order inversion of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation. The algorithm runs in O(Nlog(N)) operations where N is the number of discretization points. A wide variety of numerical examples provided include applications to highly singular geometries, high-contrast configurations, as well as acoustically/electrically large problems for which supercomputing resources have been used recently. Our method provides highly accurate solutions for such problems on small desktop computers in CPU times of the order of seconds

    Inverse scattering problem for optical coherence tomography

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    We deal with the imaging problem of determining the internal structure of a body from backscattered laser light and low-coherence interferometry. Specifically, using the interference fringes that result when the backscattering of low-coherence light is made to interfere with the reference beam, we obtain maps detailing the values of the refractive index within the sample. Our approach accounts fully for the statistical nature of the coherence phenomenon; the numerical experiments that we present, which show image reconstructions of high quality, were obtained under noise floors exceeding those present for various experimental setups reported in the literature

    Regularity Theory and Superalgebraic Solvers for Wire Antenna Problems

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    We consider the problem of evaluating the current distribution J(z)J(z) that is induced on a straight wire antenna by a time-harmonic incident electromagnetic field. The scope of this paper is twofold. One of its main contributions is a regularity proof for a straight wire occupying the interval [1,1][-1,1]. In particular, for a smooth time-harmonic incident field this theorem implies that J(z)=I(z)/1z2J(z) = I(z)/\sqrt{1-z^2}, where I(z)I(z) is an infinitely differentiable function—the previous state of the art in this regard placed II in the Sobolev space W1,pW^{1,p}, p>1p>1. The second focus of this work is on numerics: we present three superalgebraically convergent algorithms for the solution of wire problems, two based on Hallén's integral equation and one based on the Pocklington integrodifferential equation. Both our proof and our algorithms are based on two main elements: (1) a new decomposition of the kernel of the form G(z)=F1(z)ln ⁣z+F2(z)G(z) = F_1(z) \ln\! |z| + F_2(z), where F1(z)F_1(z) and F2(z)F_2(z) are analytic functions on the real line; and (2) removal of the end-point square root singularities by means of a coordinate transformation. The Hallén- and Pocklington-based algorithms we propose converge superalgebraically: faster than O(Nm)\mathcal{O}(N^{-m}) and O(Mm)\mathcal{O}(M^{-m}) for any positive integer mm, where NN and MM are the numbers of unknowns and the number of integration points required for construction of the discretized operator, respectively. In previous studies, at most the leading-order contribution to the logarithmic singular term was extracted from the kernel and treated analytically, the higher-order singular derivatives were left untreated, and the resulting integration methods for the kernel exhibit O(M3)\mathcal{O}(M^{-3}) convergence at best. A rather comprehensive set of tests we consider shows that, in many cases, to achieve a given accuracy, the numbers NN of unknowns required by our codes are up to a factor of five times smaller than those required by the best solvers previously available; the required number MM of integration points, in turn, can be several orders of magnitude smaller than those required in previous methods. In particular, four-digit solutions were found in computational times of the order of four seconds and, in most cases, of the order of a fraction of a second on a contemporary personal computer; much higher accuracies result in very small additional computing times

    High-order integral equation methods for problems of scattering by bumps and cavities on half-planes

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    This paper presents high-order integral equation methods for evaluation of electromagnetic wave scattering by dielectric bumps and dielectric cavities on perfectly conducting or dielectric half-planes. In detail, the algorithms introduced in this paper apply to eight classical scattering problems, namely: scattering by a dielectric bump on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane, and scattering by a filled, overfilled or void dielectric cavity on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane. In all cases field representations based on single-layer potentials for appropriately chosen Green functions are used. The numerical far fields and near fields exhibit excellent convergence as discretizations are refined--even at and around points where singular fields and infinite currents exist.Comment: 25 pages, 7 figure

    Rapidly convergent quasi-periodic Green functions for scattering by arrays of cylinders---including Wood anomalies

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    This paper presents a full-spectrum Green function methodology (which is valid, in particular, at and around Wood-anomaly frequencies) for evaluation of scattering by periodic arrays of cylinders of arbitrary cross section-with application to wire gratings, particle arrays and reflectarrays and, indeed, general arrays of conducting or dielectric bounded obstacles under both TE and TM polarized illumination. The proposed method, which, for definiteness is demonstrated here for arrays of perfectly conducting particles under TE polarization, is based on use of the shifted Green-function method introduced in the recent contribution (Bruno and Delourme, Jour. Computat. Phys. pp. 262--290 (2014)). A certain infinite term arises at Wood anomalies for the cylinder-array problems considered here that is not present in the previous rough-surface case. As shown in this paper, these infinite terms can be treated via an application of ideas related to the Woodbury-Sherman-Morrison formulae. The resulting approach, which is applicable to general arrays of obstacles even at and around Wood-anomaly frequencies, exhibits fast convergence and high accuracies. For example, a few hundreds of milliseconds suffice for the proposed approach to evaluate solutions throughout the resonance region (wavelengths comparable to the period and cylinder sizes) with full single-precision accuracy

    On the evaluation of quasi-periodic Green functions and wave-scattering at and around Rayleigh-Wood anomalies

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    This article presents full-spectrum, well-conditioned, Green-function methodologies for evaluation of scattering by general periodic structures, which remains applicable on a set of challenging singular configurations, usually called Rayleigh-Wood (RW) anomalies (at which the quasi-periodic Green function ceases to exist), where most existing quasi-periodic solvers break down. After reviewing a variety of existing fast-converging numerical procedures commonly used to compute the classical quasi-periodic Green-function, the present work explores the difficulties they present around RW-anomalies and introduces the concept of hybrid “spatial/spectral” representations. Such expressions allow both the modification of existing methods to obtain convergence at RW-anomalies as well as the application of a slight generalization of the Woodbury-Sherman-Morrison formulae together with a limiting procedure to bypass the singularities. (Although, for definiteness, the overall approach is applied to the scalar (acoustic) wave-scattering problem in the frequency domain, the approach can be extended in a straightforward manner to the harmonic Maxwell's and elasticity equations.) Ultimately, this thorough study of RW-anomalies yields fast and highly-accurate solvers, which are demonstrated with a variety of simulations of wave-scattering phenomena by arrays of particles, crossed impenetrable and penetrable diffraction gratings and other related structures. In particular, the methods developed in this article can be used to “upgrade” classical approaches, resulting in algorithms that are applicable throughout the spectrum, and it provides new methods for cases where previous approaches are either costly or fail altogether. In particular, it is suggested that the proposed shifted Green function approach may provide the only viable alternative for treatment of three-dimensional high-frequency configurations with either one or two directions of periodicity. A variety of computational examples are presented which demonstrate the flexibility of the overall approach

    Fast, high-order, high-frequency "accurate Fourier methods" for scattering problems

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    We present a new set of algorithms and methodologies for the numerical solution of problems of scattering by complex bodies in three-dimensional space. These methods, which are based on integral equations, high-order integration, fast Fourier transforms and highly accurate high-frequency methods, can be used in the solution of problems of electromagnetic and acoustic scattering by surfaces and penetrable scatterers - even in cases in which the scatterers contain geometric singularities such as corners and edges. In all cases the solvers exhibit high-order convergence, they run on low memories and reduced operation counts, and they result in solutions with a high degree of accuracy
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