7,138 research outputs found

    Magnetic energy cascade in spherical geometry: I. The stellar convective dynamo case

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    We present a method to characterize the spectral transfers of magnetic energy between scales in simulations of stellar convective dynamos. The full triadic transfer functions are computed thanks to analytical coupling relations of spherical harmonics based on the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. The method is applied to mean field őĪő©\alpha\Omega dynamo models as benchmark tests. From the physical standpoint, the decomposition of the dynamo field into primary and secondary dynamo families proves very instructive in the őĪő©\alpha\Omega case. The same method is then applied to a fully turbulent dynamo in a solar convection zone, modeled with the 3D MHD ASH code. The initial growth of the magnetic energy spectrum is shown to be non-local. It mainly reproduces the kinetic energy spectrum of convection at intermediate scales. During the saturation phase, two kinds of direct magnetic energy cascades are observed in regions encompassing the smallest scales involved in the simulation. The first cascade is obtained through the shearing of magnetic field by the large scale differential rotation that effectively cascades magnetic energy. The second is a generalized cascade that involves a range of local magnetic and velocity scales. Non-local transfers appear to be significant, such that the net transfers cannot be reduced to the dynamics of a small set of modes. The saturation of the large scale axisymmetric dipole and quadrupole are detailed. In particular, the dipole is saturated by a non-local interaction involving the most energetic scale of the magnetic energy spectrum, which points out the importance of the magnetic Prandtl number for large-scale dynamos.Comment: 21 pages, 14 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    Achieving control of in-plane elastic waves

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    We derive the elastic properties of a cylindrical cloak for in-plane coupled shear and pressure waves. The cloak is characterized by a rank 4 elasticity tensor with 16 spatially varying entries which are deduced from a geometric transform. Remarkably, the Navier equations retain their form under this transform, which is generally untrue [Milton et al., New J. Phys. 8, 248 (2006)]. We numerically check that clamped and freely vibrating obstacles located inside the neutral region are cloaked disrespectful of the frequency and the polarization of an incoming elastic wave.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

    A quantitative assessment of the ecological value of sycamore maple habitats in the French Alps

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    La naturalité est un critère important pour l'évaluation de mesures conservatoires des écosystèmes. Au niveau local, une telle évaluation doit être basée sur des indicateurs objectifs et quantifiables sur le terrain. Dans cette étude, nous avons utilisé une méthode multicritères basée sur la différence entre Valeur Naturelle (NV) et Valeur Conservatoire (CV) pour quantifier la valeur écologique des érablaies de versant à érable sycomore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) par comparaison avec les peuplements mixtes de hêtraie-sapinière-pessière avoisinants. En effet, les naturalistes ainsi que l'Union Européenne considèrent que les érablaies de versant ont une valeur de conservation et de naturalité élevée. Nos résultats montrent que les valeurs naturelle et de conservation sont significativement plus élevées pour l'érablaie que pour la forêt mixte avoisinante et que cette évaluation ne dépend pas de facteurs abiotiques tels que l'altitude ou l'exposition. En fait, la naturalité de structure et de composition des érablaies de versant sont plus fortes que celles des forêts mixtes et permettent de différencier les deux habitats en termes de valeur écologique. Les gestionnaires peuvent facilement utiliser cette méthode pour évaluer la valeur écologique de petits habitats en zone de montagne, ce qui permet d'établir des orientations sylvicoles pour une gestion conservatoire et proche de la nature. / Naturalness is an important criterion in nature conservation assessment. At the stand-level, such assessment must be based on objective and quantifiable indicators measurable in the field. In this study, we used a multi-criterion method based on the difference between a Natural Value(NV) and a Conservation Value (CV) to quantify the ecological value of sycamore maple patches compared to the surrounding mixed forests. Indeed, sycamore habitats are considered of high natural and conservation value both by naturalists and by European institutions. Our results showed that the natural and conservation values were significantly higher for the sycamore forests than for the surrounding mixed forests and that this assessment did not depend on abiotic factors such as elevation or aspect. Actually, naturalness of structure and composition in the sycamore habitats was higher than for mixed forests and allowed us to differentiate between the two habitats. Managers could easily use this method in order to assess the ecological value of small habitats in mountainous regions and to provide guidelines for close-to-nature and conservation-related silviculture.FORET DE MONTAGNE;ECOLOGIE FORESTIERE;EVALUATION;PROTECTION DE LA NATURE;ACER PSEUDOPLATANUS;METHODOLOGIE;HABITAT;VALEUR ECOLOGIQUE;NATURALITE;ALPES FRANCAISES;CHARTREUSE MASSIF;ACER PSEUDOPLATANUS;CHARTREUSE;INDICATORS;NATURALNESS;ECOLOGICAL VALUE

    Message from the demonstrations track chairs of ICSE 2019

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    Presents the introductory welcome message from the conference proceedings. May include the conference officers' congratulations to all involved with the conference event and publication of the proceedings record

    Quantum Walks driven by many coins

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    Quantum random walks have been much studied recently, largely due to their highly nonclassical behavior. In this paper, we study one possible route to classical behavior for the discrete quantum random walk on the line: the use of multiple quantum ``coins'' in order to diminish the effects of interference between paths. We find solutions to this system in terms of the single coin random walk, and compare the asymptotic limit of these solutions to numerical simulations. We find exact analytical expressions for the time-dependence of the first two moments, and show that in the long time limit the ``quantum mechanical'' behavior of the one-coin walk persists. We further show that this is generic for a very broad class of possible walks, and that this behavior disappears only in the limit of a new coin for every step of the walk.Comment: 36 pages RevTeX 4.0 + 5 figures (encapsulated Postscript). Submitted to Physical Review

    Quantum random walks with decoherent coins

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    The quantum random walk has been much studied recently, largely due to its highly nonclassical behavior. In this paper, we study one possible route to classical behavior for the discrete quantum walk on the line: the presence of decoherence in the quantum ``coin'' which drives the walk. We find exact analytical expressions for the time dependence of the first two moments of position, and show that in the long-time limit the variance grows linearly with time, unlike the unitary walk. We compare this to the results of direct numerical simulation, and see how the form of the position distribution changes from the unitary to the usual classical result as we increase the strength of the decoherence.Comment: Minor revisions, especially in introduction. Published versio

    Safran/Crocus/Mepra models as an helping tool for avalanche forecasters

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    To describe the great variability of the snow pack and to predict the avalanche risk in the French Alps and Pyrenees massifs, the ¬ęCentre d'Etudes de la Neige¬Ľ (C.E.N.) of METEO-FRANCE has developed an automatic chain of three models: SAFRAN: a meteorological system, using the results of the "ARPEGE" French meteorological model and all the available observed weather data (automatic or manmade networks, radio soundings ..) that estimates relevant input data for snow models CROCUS : A numerical model that simulates the evolution of temperature, density, liquid water content, stratigraphy of snow cover as a function of weather conditions MEPRA : An expert system of avalanche risk forecasting that analyses the mechanical stability of the CROCUS snow packs and deduces an avalanche risk. These three tools operate automatically in quasi real time at numerous locations under different orientations, slopes and altitudes with a vertical discretisation of 300 meters. According to past and forecast weather conditions, this automatic chain brings temporal and spatial information on the snow pack stability and the associated avalanche risks to the avalanche forecasters. The contribution of the SafraniCrocuslMepra to the avalanche forecasting are shown in three avalanche situations: => winter situation with heavy snow falls and associated risks depending on the snow rain limit and air temperature. => spring situation with snow melting and snow pack wetting depending on the orientation slope. => ¬ęaccidental¬Ľ situation (avalanche due to skier overloading) depending on the snow pack structure with slab and weak layer. Validations were also carried out by comparing various simulated parameters with measurements and observed avalanche activity with MEPRA avalanche risk during the 10 last winters
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