1,297 research outputs found

    Hierarchy construction schemes within the Scale set framework

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    Segmentation algorithms based on an energy minimisation framework often depend on a scale parameter which balances a fit to data and a regularising term. Irregular pyramids are defined as a stack of graphs successively reduced. Within this framework, the scale is often defined implicitly as the height in the pyramid. However, each level of an irregular pyramid can not usually be readily associated to the global optimum of an energy or a global criterion on the base level graph. This last drawback is addressed by the scale set framework designed by Guigues. The methods designed by this author allow to build a hierarchy and to design cuts within this hierarchy which globally minimise an energy. This paper studies the influence of the construction scheme of the initial hierarchy on the resulting optimal cuts. We propose one sequential and one parallel method with two variations within both. Our sequential methods provide partitions near the global optima while parallel methods require less execution times than the sequential method of Guigues even on sequential machines

    In vitro assessment of the pharmacodynamic properties of DB75, piperaquine, OZ277 and OZ401 in cultures of Plasmodium falciparum

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    Objectives Using synchronized cultures of Plasmodium falciparum, the time- and concentration-dependent growth changes of erythrocytic parasite stages to DB75, piperaquine, OZ277 and OZ401 were investigated in vitro over a concentration range of ∌1-100× the IC50 of piperaquine, OZ277 and OZ401 and ∌10-1000× the IC50 of DB75. Methods The effects of timed in vitro exposure (1, 6, 12 or 24 h) were monitored by the incorporation of [3H]hypoxanthine into the parasite nucleic acids. Results After 1 h of exposure to the highest concentration of the compound followed by removal of the compound, the growth of all stages of P. falciparum was reduced to <34% for DB75 and 15% for piperaquine, OZ277 and OZ401 compared with untreated control parasites. At this time point, no stage-specific effects were observed at any of the concentrations. Strong inhibition (≀10% growth) of all parasite stages was observed when the parasites were exposed to 10× or 100× the IC50 of OZ277 and OZ401 for ≄6 h. At the 6 h incubation time point, DB75 was more active against mature parasite stages, with the IC50s of young ring forms elevated up to 7-fold. This trend was observed up to 12 h, but was only statistically significant at the lowest concentration. Interestingly, the stage-specific effect of DB75 on ring forms was not detectable when washing procedures were omitted. This indicates a cytostatic action of DB75 on P. falciparum ring forms. Conclusions The current study suggests that P. falciparum ring stages are less susceptible to DB75. A milder and often statistically insignificant stage-specific trend was observed for piperaquine, whereas OZ277 and OZ401 were equally active against the erythrocytic parasite stage

    In vitro assessment of the pharmacodynamic properties and the partitioning of OZ277/RBx-11160 in cultures of Plasmodium falciparum

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    Objectives: Using synchronous cultures of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the stage sensitivity of the parasite to OZ277 (RBx-11160), the first fully synthetic antimalarial peroxide that has entered Phase II clinical trials, was investigated in vitro over a concentration range of 1× to 100× the IC50. Secondly, partitioning of OZ277 into P. falciparum-infected red blood cells (RBCs) and uninfected RBCs was studied in vitro by measuring its distribution between RBCs and plasma (R/P). Methods: The effects of timed in vitro exposure (1, 6, 12 or 24 h) to OZ277 were monitored by incorporation of [3H]hypoxanthine into parasite nucleic acids and by light-microscopic analysis of parasite morphology. Partitioning studies were performed with radiolabelled [14C]OZ277. Results: After 1 h of exposure to OZ277 at the highest concentration (100× the IC50) followed by removal of the compound, the hypoxanthine assay showed that growth of mature stages of P. falciparum was reduced to below 20%. Young ring forms were slightly less sensitive (43% growth). Similar stage-specific profiles were found for the antimalarial reference compounds artemether and chloroquine. Strong inhibition (≀6% growth) of all parasite stages was observed when the parasites were exposed to each of the three compounds for 6 h or longer. After removal of the compounds, the parasites did not recover, indicating that the observed growth inhibitions were cytotoxic rather than cytostatic. Pyrimethamine was confirmed to be active exclusively against young schizonts. Light-microscopic analysis also demonstrated the specificity of pyrimethamine against the schizont forms and showed that OZ277, artemether and chloroquine attenuated parasite growth more rapidly than did pyrimethamine. The R/P for OZ277 was 1.5 for uninfected RBCs and up to 270 for infected RBCs. Conclusions: The present study indicates similar stage-specific profiles for OZ277 and for the more well-established antimalarial agents artemether and chloroquine. Secondly, the study describes a significant accumulation of radiolabelled OZ277 in P. falciparum-infected RBC

    Fecal Calprotectin Excretion in Preterm Infants during the Neonatal Period

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    Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults.To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut.F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27–29 weeks, and 880–1320 g, respectively) at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. (p = 0.047).During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment

    Measurement of differential cross sections for top quark pair production using the lepton plus jets final state in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV

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    National Science Foundation (U.S.

    Identification of heavy-flavour jets with the CMS detector in pp collisions at 13 TeV

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    Many measurements and searches for physics beyond the standard model at the LHC rely on the efficient identification of heavy-flavour jets, i.e. jets originating from bottom or charm quarks. In this paper, the discriminating variables and the algorithms used for heavy-flavour jet identification during the first years of operation of the CMS experiment in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, are presented. Heavy-flavour jet identification algorithms have been improved compared to those used previously at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. For jets with transverse momenta in the range expected in simulated tt‟\mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}} events, these new developments result in an efficiency of 68% for the correct identification of a b jet for a probability of 1% of misidentifying a light-flavour jet. The improvement in relative efficiency at this misidentification probability is about 15%, compared to previous CMS algorithms. In addition, for the first time algorithms have been developed to identify jets containing two b hadrons in Lorentz-boosted event topologies, as well as to tag c jets. The large data sample recorded in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV has also allowed the development of new methods to measure the efficiency and misidentification probability of heavy-flavour jet identification algorithms. The heavy-flavour jet identification efficiency is measured with a precision of a few per cent at moderate jet transverse momenta (between 30 and 300 GeV) and about 5% at the highest jet transverse momenta (between 500 and 1000 GeV)

    Particle-flow reconstruction and global event description with the CMS detector

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    The CMS apparatus was identified, a few years before the start of the LHC operation at CERN, to feature properties well suited to particle-flow (PF) reconstruction: a highly-segmented tracker, a fine-grained electromagnetic calorimeter, a hermetic hadron calorimeter, a strong magnetic field, and an excellent muon spectrometer. A fully-fledged PF reconstruction algorithm tuned to the CMS detector was therefore developed and has been consistently used in physics analyses for the first time at a hadron collider. For each collision, the comprehensive list of final-state particles identified and reconstructed by the algorithm provides a global event description that leads to unprecedented CMS performance for jet and hadronic tau decay reconstruction, missing transverse momentum determination, and electron and muon identification. This approach also allows particles from pileup interactions to be identified and enables efficient pileup mitigation methods. The data collected by CMS at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV show excellent agreement with the simulation and confirm the superior PF performance at least up to an average of 20 pileup interactions

    Search for heavy resonances decaying to a top quark and a bottom quark in the lepton+jets final state in proton–proton collisions at 13 TeV

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    info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Evidence for the Higgs boson decay to a bottom quark–antiquark pair

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    info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Pseudorapidity and transverse momentum dependence of flow harmonics in pPb and PbPb collisions

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    info:eu-repo/semantics/publishe
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