665 research outputs found

    Probing BEC phase fluctuations with atomic quantum dots

    Full text link
    We consider the dephasing of two internal states |0> and |1> of a trapped impurity atom, a so-called atomic quantum dot (AQD), where only state |1> couples to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). A direct relation between the dephasing of the internal states of the AQD and the temporal phase fluctuations of the BEC is established. Based on this relation we suggest a scheme to probe BEC phase fluctuations nondestructively via dephasing measurements of the AQD. In particular, the scheme allows to trace the dependence of the phase fluctuations on the trapping geometry of the BEC.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figure

    Depletion of molecular gas by an accretion outburst in a protoplanetary disk

    Full text link
    We investigate new and archival 3-5 μ\mum high resolution (3\sim3 km s1^{-1}) spectroscopy of molecular gas in the inner disk of the young solar-mass star EX Lupi, taken during and after the strong accretion outburst of 2008. The data were obtained using the CRIRES spectrometer at the ESO Very Large Telescope in 2008 and 2014. In 2008, emission lines from CO, H2_{2}O, and OH were detected with broad profiles tracing gas near and within the corotation radius (0.02-0.3 AU). In 2014, the spectra display marked differences. The CO lines, while still detected, are much weaker, and the H2_{2}O and OH lines have disappeared altogether. At 3 μ\mum a veiled stellar photospheric spectrum is observed. Our analysis finds that the molecular gas mass in the inner disk has decreased by an order of magnitude since the outburst, matching a similar decrease in the accretion rate onto the star. We discuss these findings in the context of a rapid depletion of material accumulated beyond the disk corotation radius during quiescent periods, as proposed by models of episodic accretion in EXor type young stars.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, 1 table, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letter

    Exploiting boundary states of imperfect spin chains for high-fidelity state transfer

    Full text link
    We study transfer of a quantum state through XX spin chains with static imperfections. We combine the two standard approaches for state transfer based on (i) modulated couplings between neighboring spins throughout the spin chain and (ii) weak coupling of the outermost spins to an unmodulated spin chain. The combined approach allows us to design spin chains with modulated couplings and localized boundary states, permitting high-fidelity state transfer in the presence of random static imperfections of the couplings. The modulated couplings are explicitly obtained from an exact algorithm using the close relation between tridiagonal matrices and orthogonal polynomials [Linear Algebr. Appl. 21, 245 (1978)]. The implemented algorithm and a graphical user interface for constructing spin chains with boundary states (spinGUIn) are provided as Supplemental Material.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures + spinGUIn description and Matlab files iepsolve.m, spinGUIn.fig, spinGUIn.

    Analytical Approximations for the Collapse of an Empty Spherical Bubble

    Full text link
    The Rayleigh equation 3/2 R'+RR"+p/rho=0 with initial conditions R(0)=Rmax, R'(0)=0 models the collapse of an empty spherical bubble of radius R(T) in an ideal, infinite liquid with far-field pressure p and density rho. The solution for r=R/Rmax as a function of time t=T/Tcollapse, where R(Tcollapse)=0, is independent of Rmax, p, and rho. While no closed-form expression for r(t) is known we find that s(t)=(1-t^2)^(2/5) approximates r(t) with an error below 1%. A systematic development in orders of t^2 further yields the 0.001%-approximation r*(t)=s(t)[1-a Li(2.21,t^2)], where a=-0.01832099 is a constant and Li is the polylogarithm. The usefulness of these approximations is demonstrated by comparison to high-precision cavitation data obtained in microgravity.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Breathing oscillations of a trapped impurity in a Bose gas

    Get PDF
    Motivated by a recent experiment [J. Catani et al., arXiv:1106.0828v1 preprint, 2011], we study breathing oscillations in the width of a harmonically trapped impurity interacting with a separately trapped Bose gas. We provide an intuitive physical picture of such dynamics at zero temperature, using a time-dependent variational approach. In the Gross-Pitaevskii regime we obtain breathing oscillations whose amplitudes are suppressed by self trapping, due to interactions with the Bose gas. Introducing phonons in the Bose gas leads to the damping of breathing oscillations and non-Markovian dynamics of the width of the impurity, the degree of which can be engineered through controllable parameters. Our results reproduce the main features of the impurity dynamics observed by Catani et al. despite experimental thermal effects, and are supported by simulations of the system in the Gross-Pitaevskii regime. Moreover, we predict novel effects at lower temperatures due to self-trapping and the inhomogeneity of the trapped Bose gas.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Probing the radial temperature structure of protoplanetary disks with Herschel/HIFI

    Full text link
    Herschel/HIFI spectroscopic observations of CO J=10-9, CO J=16-15 and [CII] towards HD 100546 are presented. The objective is to resolve the velocity profile of the lines to address the emitting region of the transitions and directly probe the distribution of warm gas in the disk. The spectra reveal double-peaked CO line profiles centered on the systemic velocity, consistent with a disk origin. The J=16-15 line profile is broader than that of the J=10-9 line, which in turn is broader than those of lower J transitions (6-5, 3-2, observed with APEX), thus showing a clear temperature gradient of the gas with radius. A power-law flat disk model is used to fit the CO line profiles and the CO rotational ladder simultaneously, yielding a temperature of T_0=1100 \pm 350 K (at r_0 = 13 AU) and an index of q=0.85 \pm 0.1 for the temperature radial gradient. This indicates that the gas has a steeper radial temperature gradient than the dust (mean q_{dust} ~ 0.5), providing further proof of the thermal decoupling of gas and dust at the disk heights where the CO lines form. The [CII] line profile shows a strong single-peaked profile red-shifted by 0.5 km s-1 compared to the systemic velocity. We conclude that the bulk of the [CII] emission has a non-disk origin (e.g., remnant envelope or diffuse cloud).Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ