6,180 research outputs found

    The role of disease in bee foraging ecology

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    Diseases have important but understudied effects on bee foraging ecology. Bees transmit and contract diseases on flowers, but floral traits including plant volatiles and inflorescence architecture may affect transmission. Diseases spill over from managed or invasive pollinators to native wild bee species, and impacts of emerging diseases are of particular concern, threatening pollinator populations and pollination services. Here we review how parasites can alter the foraging behaviour of bees by changing floral preferences and impairing foraging efficiency. We also consider how changes to pollinator behaviours alter or reduce pollination services. The availability of diverse floral resources can, however, ameliorate bee diseases and their impacts through better nutrition and antimicrobial effects of plant compounds in pollen and nectar

    "‘Inert’ Ingredients Are Understudied, Potentially Dangerous to Bees and Deserve More Research Attention

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    Agrochemical formulations are composed of two broad groups of chemicals: active ingredients, which confer pest control action, and ‘inert’ ingredients, which facilitate the action of the active ingredient. Most research into the effects of agrochemicals focusses on the effects of active ingredients. This reflects the assumption that ‘inert’ ingredients are non-toxic. A review of relevant research shows that for bees, this assumption is without empirical foundation. After conducting a systematic literature search, we found just 19 studies that tested the effects of ‘inert’ ingredients on bee health. In these studies, ‘inert’ ingredients were found to cause mortality in bees through multiple exposure routes, act synergistically with other stressors and cause colony level effects. This lack of research is compounded by a lack of diversity in study organism used. We argue that ‘inert’ ingredients have distinct, and poorly understood, ecological persistency profiles and toxicities, making research into their individual effects necessary. We highlight the lack of mitigation in place to protect bees from ‘inert’ ingredients and argue that research efforts should be redistributed to address the knowledge gap identified here. If so-called ‘inert’ ingredients are, in fact, detrimental to bee health, their potential role in widespread bee declines needs urgent assessment

    Stimulation of gastrointestinal antibody to Shiga toxin by orogastric immunization in mice

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/141579/1/imcb69.pd
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