6,635 research outputs found

    Spectra of Tukey types of ultrafilters on Boolean algebras

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    Extending recent investigations on the structure of Tukey types of ultrafilters on P(ω)\mathcal{P}(\omega) to Boolean algebras in general, we classify the spectra of Tukey types of ultrafilters for several classes of Boolean algebras, including interval algebras, tree algebras, and pseudo-tree algebras.Comment: 18 page

    Systematic review and meta-analysis of optimal P2Y₁₂ blockade in dual antiplatelet therapy for patients with diabetes with acute coronary syndrome

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    Background: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their mortality and morbidity outcomes are significantly worse following ACS events, independent of other comorbidities. This systematic review sought to establish the optimum management strategy with focus on P2Y₁₂ blockade in patients with diabetes with ACS. Methods: MEDLINE (1946 to present) and EMBASE (1974 to present) databases, abstracts from major cardiology conferences and previously published systematic reviews were searched to June 2014. Relevant randomised control trials with clinical outcomes for P2Y₁₂ inhibitors in adult patients with diabetes with ACS were scrutinised independently by 2 authors with applicable data was extracted for primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke; enabling calculation of relative risks with 95% CI with subsequent direct and indirect comparison. Results: Four studies studied clopidogrel in patients with diabetes, with two (3122 patients) having primary outcome data showing superiority of clopidogrel against placebo with RR0.84 (95% CI 0.72–0.99). Irrespective of management strategy, the newer agents prasugrel (2 studies) and ticagrelor (1 study) had a lower primary event rate compared with clopidogrel; RR 0.80 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.97) and RR 0.89 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.02), respectively. When ticagrelor was indirectly compared with prasugrel, there was a trend to an improved primary outcome with prasugrel (RR 1.11 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.31)) particularly in those managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (RR 1.23 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.59)). Prasugrel demonstrated a statistical superiority with prevention of further MI with RR 1.48 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.97). This was not at the expense of increased major thrombolysis in MI (TIMI) bleeding rates RR 0.94 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.51). Conclusions: This meta-analysis shows the addition of a P2Y₁₂ inhibitor is superior to placebo, with a trend favouring the use of prasugrel in patients with diabetes with ACS, particularly those undergoing PCI

    WTO’ing a Resolution to the China Subsidy Problem

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    The United States, European Union, and Japan have begun a trilateral process to confront the Chinese economic model, including its use of industrial subsidies and deployment of state-owned enterprises. This paper seeks to identify the main areas of tension and to assess the legal-economic challenges to constructing new rules to address the underlying conflict. It begins by providing a brief history of subsidy disciplines in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) predating any concerns introduced by China. It then describes contemporary economic problems with China\u27s approach to subsidies, their impact, and the apparent ineffectiveness of the WTO\u27s Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM) to address them. Finally, it calls for increased efforts to measure and pinpoint the source of the problems – in a manner analogous to how the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) took on agricultural subsidies in the 1980s – before providing a legal-economic assessment of proposals for reforms to notifications, evidence, remedies, enforcement, and the definition of a subsidy

    We Here: Speaking Our Truth

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    In this article, we seek to seed an honest conversation about how librarianship needs to meaningfully address systems of structural oppression in order to actualize diversity and inclusion initiatives at large. We will investigate issues of recruitment, retention, education, and mentorship within the library and information science profession through the lens of our experiences as women of color, and as early-career librarians; we will also weave relevant insights reflected from within the literature to support our narratives. Central to this work is an understanding of the barriers that people of color (POC) face in our workplaces and the profession at large; we will discuss this at length throughout. Finally, we will conclude with recommendations on how the profession, as a whole, can do better at retaining and supporting its marginalized workforce. This is a call to action for librarians at every level to hold themselves accountable for the ways in which they are complicit within systems of oppression and inequality. Concurrently, this article aims to generate momentum in coalition building as a tool for POC attempting to navigate the overwhelming whiteness evident within the profession

    The Design of a Cognitive Apprenticeship to Facilitate Storytime Programming for Librarians

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    The majority of research that has been conducted on structuring mentorship programs has been on career support in terms of transferring tacit and explicit knowledge from the supervisor to the protégé. While the instructional design literature touts that cognitive apprenticeships provide a great framework for constructivist and situated learning environments, little research has been done examining how much time should be allocated to the various phases of the apprenticeship framework. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the use of a cognitive apprenticeship framework could be used to mentor new librarians. Data was collected and analyzed in three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a needs assessment to determine the skills necessary for programmers to deliver a curriculum based storytime. Phase 2 data collected during the implementation of the cognitive apprenticeship included observation and reflective journals. Data collected during Phase 3 consisted of participant interviews immediately following the implementation of the cognitive apprenticeship, and three months after the conclusion of the study. All data was coded and analyzed using a phenemonological approach. The researchers found the need for flexibility when utilizing a cognitive apprenticeship model, based on participant prior knowledge and experience, the importance of the modeling and coaching stages of the model, participant desire for working with other programmers being trained

    Northern Long-eared Bat, Myotis septentrionalis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), on Prince Edward Island: First Records of Occurrence and Over-Wintering

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    First occurrence of the Northern Long-eared Bat, Myotis septentrionalis, on Prince Edward Island is reported. A mixed-species hibernaculum of M. septentrionalis and the Little Brown Bat, M. lucifugus, is also described from southeastern Prince Edward Island. This is the first record of bats over-wintering in the province and the first time either species has been reported making use of a building as a hibernaculum