22,500 research outputs found

    Biographical Sketch of Spencer Fullerton Baird

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    Spencer Fullerton Baird was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, February 3, 1823. In 1834 he was sent to a Quaker boarding-school kept by Dr. McGraw, at Port Deposit, Maryland, and the year following to the Reading Grammar School. In 1836 he entered Dickinson College, and was graduated at the age of seventeen. After leaving college, his time for several years was devoted to studies in general natural history, to long pedestrian excursions for the purpose of observing animals and plants and collecting specimens, and to the organization of a private cabinet of natural history, which a few years later became the nucleus of the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. During this period he published a number of original papers on natural history. He also read medicine with Dr. Middleton Goldsmith, attending a winter course of lectures at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in New York, in 1842. His medical course was never formally completed, although in 1848 he received the degree of M. D., honoris causa, from the Philadelphia Medical College. In 1845 he was chosen professor of natural history in Dickinson College, and in 1846 his duties and emoluments were increased by election to the chair of natural history and chemistry in the same institution. In 1848 he declined a call to the professorship of natural science in the University of Vermont. In 1849 he undertook his first extensive literary work, translating and editing the text for the "Iconographic Encyclopedia," an English version of Heck's Bilder Atlas, published in connection with Brockhaus's Conversations Lexikon

    Doing pedagogical research in engineering

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    This is a book

    Hypercubes, Leonard triples and the anticommutator spin algebra

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    This paper is about three classes of objects: Leonard triples, distance-regular graphs and the modules for the anticommutator spin algebra. Let \K denote an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. Let VV denote a vector space over \K with finite positive dimension. A Leonard triple on VV is an ordered triple of linear transformations in End(V)\mathrm{End}(V) such that for each of these transformations there exists a basis for VV with respect to which the matrix representing that transformation is diagonal and the matrices representing the other two transformations are irreducible tridiagonal. The Leonard triples of interest to us are said to be totally B/AB and of Bannai/Ito type. Totally B/AB Leonard triples of Bannai/Ito type arise in conjunction with the anticommutator spin algebra A\mathcal{A}, the unital associative \K-algebra defined by generators x,y,zx,y,z and relationsxy+yx=2z,yz+zy=2x,zx+xz=2y.xy+yx=2z,\qquad yz+zy=2x,\qquad zx+xz=2y. Let D0D\geq0 denote an integer, let QDQ_{D} denote the hypercube of diameter DD and let Q~D\tilde{Q}_{D} denote the antipodal quotient. Let TT (resp. T~\tilde{T}) denote the Terwilliger algebra for QDQ_{D} (resp. Q~D\tilde{Q}_{D}). We obtain the following. When DD is even (resp. odd), we show that there exists a unique A\mathcal{A}-module structure on QDQ_{D} (resp. Q~D\tilde{Q}_{D}) such that x,yx,y act as the adjacency and dual adjacency matrices respectively. We classify the resulting irreducible A\mathcal{A}-modules up to isomorphism. We introduce weighted adjacency matrices for QDQ_{D}, Q~D\tilde{Q}_{D}. When DD is even (resp. odd) we show that actions of the adjacency, dual adjacency and weighted adjacency matrices for QDQ_{D} (resp. Q~D\tilde{Q}_{D}) on any irreducible TT-module (resp. T~\tilde{T}-module) form a totally bipartite (resp. almost bipartite) Leonard triple of Bannai/Ito type and classify the Leonard triple up to isomorphism.Comment: arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:0705.0518 by other author

    Optimal Intellectual Property Rights Exhaustion and Humanitarian Assistance during a National Health Emergency

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    We analyze policy options during an international health emergency to provide consumers in least developed countries access to patented life-extending pharmaceuticals. We show that a properly specified tariff against re?xports achieves optimal price dispersion and is shown to depend on the nature of demand, product development costs and humanitarian concerns by western citizens for patients inside a health emergency zone. A tariff dominates regional exhaustion for achieving optimal price dispersion, improves the efficiency properties of a patent for covering product development cost and is a more efficient tool for internalizing a humanitarian externality than a targeted consumption subsidy.Intellectual Property Rights, AIDS, Developing Countries, WTO

    Optimal Intellectual Property Rights Protection and Humanitarian Assistance during and International Health Emergency

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    We analyze policy options during an international health emergency to provide consumers in least developed countries access to patented life-extending pharmaceuticals. We show that a properly specified tariff against reexports achieves optimal price dispersion and is shown to depend on the nature of demand, product development costs and humanitarian concerns by western citizens for patients inside a health emergency zone. A tariff dominates regional exhaustion for achieving optimal price dispersion, improves the efficiency properties of a patent for covering product development cost and is a more efficient tool for internalizing a humanitarian externality than a targeted consumption subsidy.Intellectual Property Rights, AIDS, Developing Countries, WTO

    Acoustic Assessment of Twin-engined Turboprop Layout

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