75,864 research outputs found

    Magnetic heat pumping

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    The method employs ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic elements, preferably of rare-earth based material, for example gadolinium, and preferably employs a regenerator. The steps comprise controlling the temperature and applied magnetic field of the element to cause the state of the element as represented on a temperature-magnetic entropy diagram repeatedly to traverse a loop. The loop may have a first portion of concurrent substantially isothermal or constant temperature and increasing applied magnetic field, a second portion of lowering temperature and constant applied magnetic field, a third portion of isothermal and decreasing applied magnetic field, and a fourth portion of increasing temperature and constant applied magnetic field. Other loops may be four sided, with, for example, two isotherms and two adiabats (constant entropy portions

    Magnetocaloric pump

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    Very cold liquids and gases such as helium, neon, and nitrogen can be pumped by using magnetocaloric effect. Adiabatic magnetization and demagnetization are used to alternately heat and cool slug of pumped fluid contained in closed chamber

    Magnetic heat pumping

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    A ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic element is used to control the temperature and applied magnetic field of the element to cause the state of the element as represented on a temperature-magnetic entropy diagram to repeatedly traverse a loop. The loop may have a first portion of concurrent substantially isothermal or constant temperature and increasing applied magnetic field, a second portion of lowering temperature and constant applied magnetic field, a third portion of isothermal and decreasing applied magnetic field, and a fourth portion of increasing temperature and constant applied magnetic field. Other loops may be four-sided, with two isotherms and two adiabats. Preferably, a regenerator is used to enhance desired cooling or heating effects, with varied magnetic fields, or varying temperatures including three-sided figures traversed by the representative point

    Magnetic stirling cycles: A new application for magnetic materials

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    The elements of the cycle are summarized. The basic advantages include high entropy density in the magnetic material, completely reversible processes, convenient control of the entropy by the applied field, the feature that heat transfer is possible during all processes, and the ability of the ideal cycle to attain Carnot efficiency. The mean field theory is used to predict the entropy of a ferromagnet in an applied field and also the isothermal entropy change and isentropic temperature change caused by applying a field. The results for isentropic temperature change are compared with experimental data on Gd. Coarse mixtures of ferromagnetic materials with different Curie points are proposed to modify the path of the cycle in the T-S diagram in order to improve the efficiency or to increase the specific power

    Use of cermet thin film resistors with nitride passivated metal insulator field effect transistor

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    Film deposition of cermet resistors on same chip with metal nitride oxide silicon field effect transistors permits protection of contamination sensitive active devices from contaminants produced in cermet deposition and definition processes. Additional advantages include lower cost, greater reliability, and space savings

    Cavefish Population Status and Environmental Quality in Cave Springs Cave, Arkansas - Final Report submitted to Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission

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    This report summarizes the continuing effort to monitor environmental quality in the Cave Springs Cave Natural Area and to implement the Ozark Cavefish Recovery Plan. Last year’s report (Brown et al., 1998) identified certain environmental stressors, including a trend over 15 years of increasing nutrient pollution, a low cavefish population count of only 106, and the presence of heavy metals in the cave water and one semi-volatile organic compound (the phthalate DEHP at 500 ppb) in resident crayfish tissue. This year’s monitoring effort demonstrates that fecal coliforms continue to exceed Arkansas State Water Quality Standards (Regulation 2), sometimes by a factor of 1000. The presence of heavy metals is confirmed, in not only the cave water and sediments, but in crayfish tissue, which implies that it may be bioaccumulating in the cave foodweb. Furthermore, beryllium, copper, lead, selenium, and zinc are present in concentrations in the cave water that exceeded the Regulation 2 standards for chronic, and sometimes acute, toxicity to aquatic life. Significant amounts of nitrate are also present (with a yearly average of over 5 mg NO3-N/ L), and phosphate concentrations occasionally exceed Regulation 2 standards. Concentrations of nitrate, ortho-phosphate, total phosphate, total coliforms, and several dissolved metals (Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, and Pb) were all highly correlated with discharge, and concentrations were highest during stormflow events. No pesticides were detected in cave water, crayfish tissue or bat guano. Phthalates were again detected in crayfish tissue (DEP and DEHP at 1 ppb each), as well as the cave water (DEHP at 0.7 ppb). While the effects of these phthalates upon aquatic organisms are unknown, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency considers phthalates to be human carcinogens and hormone disrupters. Ironically, while the cavefish habitat appears to be quite polluted, this year’s population survey counted 166 Ozark cavefish, the most ever counted for this (or any other) habitat. In order to integrate these pollution concerns and other data about this cave complex, a geographic information system was created for the Cave Springs Cave recharge zone. Preliminary analyses have detected several sensitive areas and pollution sources. The cave complex was determined to extend outside of the Natural Area boundary, and several sinkholes were identified. Photo-lineaments and fracture traces were identified, and other studies in Benton County demonstrate that these features, commonly expressed as intermittent streams on the surface, allow surface pollutants to rapidly enter the groundwater. Protection of these adjacent lands, sinkholes, and streams is recommended. The reduction or cessation of the land application of sewage sludge and agricultural waste in the recharge zone is also recommended

    The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all

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    The studies of human and environment interactions usually consider the extremes of environment on individuals or how humans affect the environment. It is well known that physical activity improves both physiological and psychological well-being, but further evidence is required to ascertain how different environments influence and shape health. This review considers the declining levels of physical activity, particularly in the Western world, and how the environment may help motivate and facilitate physical activity. It also addresses the additional physiological and mental health benefits that appear to occur when exercise is performed in an outdoor environment. However, people's connectedness to nature appears to be changing and this has important implications as to how humans are now interacting with nature. Barriers exist, and it is important that these are considered when discussing how to make exercise in the outdoors accessible and beneficial for all. The synergistic combination of exercise and exposure to nature and thus the 'great outdoors' could be used as a powerful tool to help fight the growing incidence of both physical inactivity and non-communicable disease. © 2013 Gladwell et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd

    New twisted intermetallic compound superconductor: A concept

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    Method for processing Nb3Sn and other intermetallic compound superconductors produces a twisted, stabilized wire or tube which can be used to wind electromagnetics, armatures, rotors, and field windings for motors and generators as well as other magnetic devices
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