9,174 research outputs found

    Radicals, Metals and Magnetism

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    The interaction between unpaired electrons governs many physical properties of materials. Although in a fundamental sense the interaction is simple, a full understanding of the interaction in molecular systems is complicated by the presence of other bonding and non-bonding electrons. The resulting many body problem is very challenging. Nevertheless, much qualitative understanding can be obtained from applying simple molecular orbital theory and considering only the partly filled orbitals. The resulting model can be used to describe existing diradical and metal-radical systems and also has predicative value in the search for molecular magnets and design of nanoscale devices

    Method and apparatus for determining return stroke polarity of distant lightning

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    A method is described for determining the return stroke polarity of distant lightning for distances beyond 600 km by detecting the electric field associated with a return stroke of distant lightning, and processing the electric field signal to determine the polarity of the slow tail of the VLF waveform signal associated with the detected electric field. The polarity of the return stroke of distant lightning is determined based upon the polarity of the slow tail portion of the waveform

    Determining the Impact of Federal Antidiscrimination Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Study of South Carolina

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    This paper assesses the contribution of federal antidiscrimination policy to the dramatic improvement of black economic status in manufacturing that occurred in South Carolina in the mid 1960's. Using a unique data source on wages and employment by race and sex in South Carolina we evaluate competing explanations. Human capital stories, supply shift stories and tight labor market stories do not account for the black breakthrough. Our study documents a significant contribution of federal antidiscrimination programs.

    Constraining sub-grid physics with high-redshift spatially-resolved metallicity distributions

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    Aims. We examine the role of energy feedback in shaping the distribution of metals within cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of L* disc galaxies. While negative abundance gradients today provide a boundary condition for galaxy evolution models, in support of inside-out disc growth, empirical evidence as to whether abundance gradients steepen or flatten with time remains highly contradictory. Methods. We made use of a suite of L* discs, realised with and without "enhanced" feedback. All the simulations were produced using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code Gasoline, and their in situ gas-phase metallicity gradients traced from redshift z similar to 2 to the present-day. Present-day age-metallicity relations and metallicity distribution functions were derived for each system. Results. The "enhanced" feedback models, which have been shown to be in agreement with a broad range of empirical scaling relations, distribute energy and re-cycled ISM material over large scales and predict the existence of relatively "flat" and temporally invariant abundance gradients. Enhanced feedback schemes reduce significantly the scatter in the local stellar age-metallicity relation and, especially, the [O/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation. The local [O/Fe] distribution functions for our L* discs show clear bimodality, with peaks at [O/Fe] = -0.05 and +0.05 (for stars with [Fe/H] > -1), consistent with our earlier work on dwarf discs. Conclusions. Our results with "enhanced" feedback are inconsistent with our earlier generation of simulations realised with "conservative" feedback. We conclude that spatially-resolved metallicity distributions, particularly at high-redshift, offer a unique and under-utilised constraint on the uncertain nature of stellar feedback processes

    One Hour of Chemical Demonstrations

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    This article describes a diverse set of chemistry demonstrations especially selected to encourage student interaction and to be easily transported. The demonstrations may be presented at a level that can be tailored to any audience– from very young children to high school students planning careers in science. An ideal environment is a small classroom with 20-30 students where everyone can take part in the discussion. Once the chemicals are prepared, the collection of demonstrations takes about ten minutes to set-up, and one hour (or less) to perform. Very little is needed at the visiting site, no more than a table and a pitcher of water. A single electrical outlet is useful, but not essential. In Table 2 th
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