33 research outputs found

    Memory Integrity of CNNs for Cross-Dataset Facial Expression Recognition

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    Facial expression recognition is a major problem in the domain of artificial intelligence. One of the best ways to solve this problem is the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs). However, a large amount of data is required to train properly these networks but most of the datasets available for facial expression recognition are relatively small. A common way to circumvent the lack of data is to use CNNs trained on large datasets of different domains and fine-tuning the layers of such networks to the target domain. However, the fine-tuning process does not preserve the memory integrity as CNNs have the tendency to forget patterns they have learned. In this paper, we evaluate different strategies of fine-tuning a CNN with the aim of assessing the memory integrity of such strategies in a cross-dataset scenario. A CNN pre-trained on a source dataset is used as the baseline and four adaptation strategies have been evaluated: fine-tuning its fully connected layers; fine-tuning its last convolutional layer and its fully connected layers; retraining the CNN on a target dataset; and the fusion of the source and target datasets and retraining the CNN. Experimental results on four datasets have shown that the fusion of the source and the target datasets provides the best trade-off between accuracy and memory integrity

    Texture CNN for Thermoelectric Metal Pipe Image Classification

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    In this paper, the concept of representation learning based on deep neural networks is applied as an alternative to the use of handcrafted features in a method for automatic visual inspection of corroded thermoelectric metallic pipes. A texture convolutional neural network (TCNN) replaces handcrafted features based on Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) and Haralick descriptors (HD) with the advantage of learning an appropriate textural representation and the decision boundaries into a single optimization process. Experimental results have shown that it is possible to reach the accuracy of 99.20% in the task of identifying different levels of corrosion in the internal surface of thermoelectric pipe walls, while using a compact network that requires much less effort in tuning parameters when compared to the handcrafted approach since the TCNN architecture is compact regarding the number of layers and connections. The observed results open up the possibility of using deep neural networks in real-time applications such as the automatic inspection of thermoelectric metal pipes

    Two-View Fine-grained Classification of Plant Species

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    Automatic plant classification is a challenging problem due to the wide biodiversity of the existing plant species in a fine-grained scenario. Powerful deep learning architectures have been used to improve the classification performance in such a fine-grained problem, but usually building models that are highly dependent on a large training dataset and which are not scalable. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on a two-view leaf image representation and a hierarchical classification strategy for fine-grained recognition of plant species. It uses the botanical taxonomy as a basis for a coarse-to-fine strategy applied to identify the plant genus and species. The two-view representation provides complementary global and local features of leaf images. A deep metric based on Siamese convolutional neural networks is used to reduce the dependence on a large number of training samples and make the method scalable to new plant species. The experimental results on two challenging fine-grained datasets of leaf images (i.e. LifeCLEF 2015 and LeafSnap) have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method, which achieved recognition accuracy of 0.87 and 0.96 respectively.Comment: Submitted to Ecological Informatic

    A Classifier-free Ensemble Selection Method based on Data Diversity in Random Subspaces

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    The Ensemble of Classifiers (EoC) has been shown to be effective in improving the performance of single classifiers by combining their outputs, and one of the most important properties involved in the selection of the best EoC from a pool of classifiers is considered to be classifier diversity. In general, classifier diversity does not occur randomly, but is generated systematically by various ensemble creation methods. By using diverse data subsets to train classifiers, these methods can create diverse classifiers for the EoC. In this work, we propose a scheme to measure data diversity directly from random subspaces, and explore the possibility of using it to select the best data subsets for the construction of the EoC. Our scheme is the first ensemble selection method to be presented in the literature based on the concept of data diversity. Its main advantage over the traditional framework (ensemble creation then selection) is that it obviates the need for classifier training prior to ensemble selection. A single Genetic Algorithm (GA) and a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) were evaluated to search for the best solutions for the classifier-free ensemble selection. In both cases, objective functions based on different clustering diversity measures were implemented and tested. All the results obtained with the proposed classifier-free ensemble selection method were compared with the traditional classifier-based ensemble selection using Mean Classifier Error (ME) and Majority Voting Error (MVE). The applicability of the method is tested on UCI machine learning problems and NIST SD19 handwritten numerals

    People Counting in Crowded and Outdoor Scenes using a Hybrid Multi-Camera Approach

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    This paper presents two novel approaches for people counting in crowded and open environments that combine the information gathered by multiple views. Multiple camera are used to expand the field of view as well as to mitigate the problem of occlusion that commonly affects the performance of counting methods using single cameras. The first approach is regarded as a direct approach and it attempts to segment and count each individual in the crowd. For such an aim, two head detectors trained with head images are employed: one based on support vector machines and another based on Adaboost perceptron. The second approach, regarded as an indirect approach employs learning algorithms and statistical analysis on the whole crowd to achieve counting. For such an aim, corner points are extracted from groups of people in a foreground image and computed by a learning algorithm which estimates the number of people in the scene. Both approaches count the number of people on the scene and not only on a given image or video frame of the scene. The experimental results obtained on the benchmark PETS2009 video dataset show that proposed indirect method surpasses other methods with improvements of up to 46.7% and provides accurate counting results for the crowded scenes. On the other hand, the direct method shows high error rates due to the fact that the latter has much more complex problems to solve, such as segmentation of heads

    Double Transfer Learning for Breast Cancer Histopathologic Image Classification

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    This work proposes a classification approach for breast cancer histopathologic images (HI) that uses transfer learning to extract features from HI using an Inception-v3 CNN pre-trained with ImageNet dataset. We also use transfer learning on training a support vector machine (SVM) classifier on a tissue labeled colorectal cancer dataset aiming to filter the patches from a breast cancer HI and remove the irrelevant ones. We show that removing irrelevant patches before training a second SVM classifier, improves the accuracy for classifying malign and benign tumors on breast cancer images. We are able to improve the classification accuracy in 3.7% using the feature extraction transfer learning and an additional 0.7% using the irrelevant patch elimination. The proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art in three out of the four magnification factors of the breast cancer dataset

    Texture CNN for Histopathological Image Classification

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    Biopsies are the gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. This task can be improved by the use of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems, reducing the time of diagnosis and reducing the inter and intra-observer variability. The advances in computing have brought this type of system closer to reality. However, datasets of Histopathological Images (HI) from biopsies are quite small and unbalanced what makes difficult to use modern machine learning techniques such as deep learning. In this paper we propose a compact architecture based on texture filters that has fewer parameters than traditional deep models but is able to capture the difference between malignant and benign tissues with relative accuracy. The experimental results on the BreakHis dataset have show that the proposed texture CNN achieves almost 90% of accuracy for classifying benign and malignant tissues

    Histopathologic Image Processing: A Review

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    Histopathologic Images (HI) are the gold standard for evaluation of some tumors. However, the analysis of such images is challenging even for experienced pathologists, resulting in problems of inter and intra observer. Besides that, the analysis is time and resource consuming. One of the ways to accelerate such an analysis is by using Computer Aided Diagnosis systems. In this work we present a literature review about the computing techniques to process HI, including shallow and deep methods. We cover the most common tasks for processing HI such as segmentation, feature extraction, unsupervised learning and supervised learning. A dataset section show some datasets found during the literature review. We also bring a study case of breast cancer classification using a mix of deep and shallow machine learning methods. The proposed method obtained an accuracy of 91% in the best case, outperforming the compared baseline of the dataset

    CNN Hyperparameter tuning applied to Iris Liveness Detection

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    The iris pattern has significantly improved the biometric recognition field due to its high level of stability and uniqueness. Such physical feature has played an important role in security and other related areas. However, presentation attacks, also known as spoofing techniques, can be used to bypass the biometric system with artifacts such as printed images, artificial eyes, and textured contact lenses. To improve the security of these systems, many liveness detection methods have been proposed, and the first Internacional Iris Liveness Detection competition was launched in 2013 to evaluate their effectiveness. In this paper, we propose a hyperparameter tuning of the CASIA algorithm, submitted by the Chinese Academy of Sciences to the third competition of Iris Liveness Detection, in 2017. The modifications proposed promoted an overall improvement, with an 8.48% Attack Presentation Classification Error Rate (APCER) and 0.18% Bonafide Presentation Classification Error Rate (BPCER) for the evaluation of the combined datasets. Other threshold values were evaluated in an attempt to reduce the trade-off between the APCER and the BPCER on the evaluated datasets and worked out successfully.Comment: Accepted for presentation at the International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications (VISAPP 2020

    Data Augmentation for Histopathological Images Based on Gaussian-Laplacian Pyramid Blending

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    Data imbalance is a major problem that affects several machine learning (ML) algorithms. Such a problem is troublesome because most of the ML algorithms attempt to optimize a loss function that does not take into account the data imbalance. Accordingly, the ML algorithm simply generates a trivial model that is biased toward predicting the most frequent class in the training data. In the case of histopathologic images (HIs), both low-level and high-level data augmentation (DA) techniques still present performance issues when applied in the presence of inter-patient variability; whence the model tends to learn color representations, which is related to the staining process. In this paper, we propose a novel approach capable of not only augmenting HI dataset but also distributing the inter-patient variability by means of image blending using the Gaussian-Laplacian pyramid. The proposed approach consists of finding the Gaussian pyramids of two images of different patients and finding the Laplacian pyramids thereof. Afterwards, the left-half side and the right-half side of different HIs are joined in each level of the Laplacian pyramid, and from the joint pyramids, the original image is reconstructed. This composition combines the stain variation of two patients, avoiding that color differences mislead the learning process. Experimental results on the BreakHis dataset have shown promising gains vis-a-vis the majority of DA techniques presented in the literature.Comment: 8 page
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