126 research outputs found

    Are You Speaking? : A Speech Act Analysis of Pinter\u27s \u3ci\u3eA Kind of Alaska\u3c/i\u3e and \u3ci\u3eNo Man\u27s Land\u3c/i\u3e

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    My purpose, however, lies not only in a desire to contribute insight to the critical canon on Pinter. I also wish to offer some insight into the literary application of speech act theory. Among the writers I will discuss are Austin, Searle, Altieri, Pratt, Derrida, and Fish. This application leads to my belief that drama is the literary genre to which speech act theory is most appropriate and applicable (in much the same way as the poem serves as the New Critical model). I will begin with a brief introduction to speech act theory, move on to my analysis of the plays, make general inferences about the plays and the theory, and then reach for conclusions

    Requirement for Abasic Endonuclease Gene Homologues in Arabidopsis Seed Development

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    Arabidopsis thaliana has three genes, Ape1L, Ape2, and Arp, that show homology to abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic) endonuclease genes of bacterial, yeast, or animal cells. In bacteria, yeast, and animals, abasic endonucleases function in base excision repair of oxidized and other modified DNA bases. Here we report that plants with knock-out mutations in any one of Ape1L, Ape2, or Arp show no apparent differences from wild type in growth rate, growth habit, and fertility. However, coincident knock-out mutations in Ape1L and Ape2 are lethal and lead to abortion of developing embryos. Mutations of Arp are not deleterious, even in combination with one of the other two mutations. The results are consistent with the interpretation that the process of base excision repair, involving at least one intact copy of Ape1L or Ape2, is required in the process of embryogenesis

    Heritability of Urinary Amines, Organic Acids, and Steroid Hormones in Children

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    Variation in metabolite levels reflects individual differences in genetic and environmental factors. Here, we investigated the role of these factors in urinary metabolomics data in children. We examined the effects of sex and age on 86 metabolites, as measured on three metabolomics platforms that target amines, organic acids, and steroid hormones. Next, we estimated their heritability in a twin cohort of 1300 twins (age range: 5.7-12.9 years). We observed associations between age and 50 metabolites and between sex and 21 metabolites. The monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) correlations for the urinary metabolites indicated a role for non-additive genetic factors for 50 amines, 13 organic acids, and 6 steroids. The average broad-sense heritability for these amines, organic acids, and steroids was 0.49 (range: 0.25-0.64), 0.50 (range: 0.33-0.62), and 0.64 (range: 0.43-0.81), respectively. For 6 amines, 7 organic acids, and 4 steroids the twin correlations indicated a role for shared environmental factors and the average narrow-sense heritability was 0.50 (range: 0.37-0.68), 0.50 (range; 0.23-0.61), and 0.47 (range: 0.32-0.70) for these amines, organic acids, and steroids. We conclude that urinary metabolites in children have substantial heritability, with similar estimates for amines and organic acids, and higher estimates for steroid hormones

    Multicenter, Observational Cohort Study Evaluating Third-Generation Cephalosporin Therapy for Bloodstream Infections Secondary to Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter Species

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    Objectives: There is debate on whether the use of third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) increases the risk of clinical failure in bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by chromosomally-mediated AmpC-producing Enterobacterales (CAE). This study evaluates the impact of definitive 3GC therapy versus other antibiotics on clinical outcomes in BSIs due to Enterobacter, Serratia, or Citrobacter species. Methods: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study evaluated adult hospitalized patients with BSIs secondary to Enterobacter, Serratia, or Citrobacter species from 1 January 2006 to 1 September 2014. Definitive 3GC therapy was compared to definitive therapy with other non-3GC antibiotics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression evaluated the impact of definitive 3GC on overall treatment failure (OTF) as a composite of in-hospital mortality, 30-day hospital readmission, or 90-day reinfection. Results: A total of 381 patients from 18 institutions in the southeastern United States were enrolled. Common sources of BSIs were the urinary tract and central venous catheters (78 (20.5%) patients each). Definitive 3GC therapy was utilized in 65 (17.1%) patients. OTF occurred in 22/65 patients (33.9%) in the definitive 3GC group vs. 94/316 (29.8%) in the non-3GC group (p = 0.51). Individual components of OTF were comparable between groups. Risk of OTF was comparable with definitive 3GC therapy vs. definitive non-3GC therapy (aHR 0.93, 95% CI 0.51‚Äď1.72) in multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Conclusions: These outcomes suggest definitive 3GC therapy does not significantly alter the risk of poor clinical outcomes in the treatment of BSIs secondary to Enterobacter, Serratia, or Citrobacter species compared to other antimicrobial agents

    Two novel human cytomegalovirus NK cell evasion functions target MICA for lysosomal degradation

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    NKG2D plays a major role in controlling immune responses through the regulation of natural killer (NK) cells, őĪő≤ and ő≥őī T-cell function. This activating receptor recognizes eight distinct ligands (the MHC Class I polypeptide-related sequences (MIC) A andB, and UL16-binding proteins (ULBP)1‚Äď6) induced by cellular stress to promote recognition cells perturbed by malignant transformation or microbial infection. Studies into human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have aided both the identification and characterization of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs). HCMV immediate early (IE) gene up regulates NKGDLs, and we now describe the differential activation of ULBP2 and MICA/B by IE1 and IE2 respectively. Despite activation by IE functions, HCMV effectively suppressed cell surface expression of NKGDLs through both the early and late phases of infection. The immune evasion functions UL16, UL142, and microRNA(miR)-UL112 are known to target NKG2DLs. While infection with a UL16 deletion mutant caused the expected increase in MICB and ULBP2 cell surface expression, deletion of UL142 did not have a similar impact on its target, MICA. We therefore performed a systematic screen of the viral genome to search of addition functions that targeted MICA. US18 and US20 were identified as novel NK cell evasion functions capable of acting independently to promote MICA degradation by lysosomal degradation. The most dramatic effect on MICA expression was achieved when US18 and US20 acted in concert. US18 and US20 are the first members of the US12 gene family to have been assigned a function. The US12 family has 10 members encoded sequentially through US12‚ÄďUS21; a genetic arrangement, which is suggestive of an ‚Äėaccordion‚Äô expansion of an ancestral gene in response to a selective pressure. This expansion must have be an ancient event as the whole family is conserved across simian cytomegaloviruses from old world monkeys. The evolutionary benefit bestowed by the combinatorial effect of US18 and US20 on MICA may have contributed to sustaining the US12 gene family

    SDSS-IV from 2014 to 2016: A Detailed Demographic Comparison over Three Years

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    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is one of the largest international astronomy organizations. We present demographic data based on surveys of its members from 2014, 2015 and 2016, during the fourth phase of SDSS (SDSS-IV). We find about half of SDSS-IV collaboration members were based in North America, a quarter in Europe, and the remainder in Asia and Central and South America. Overall, 26-36% are women (from 2014 to 2016), up to 2% report non-binary genders. 11-14% report that they are racial or ethnic minorities where they live. The fraction of women drops with seniority, and is also lower among collaboration leadership. Men in SDSS-IV were more likely to report being in a leadership role, and for the role to be funded and formally recognized. SDSS-IV collaboration members are twice as likely to have a parent with a college degree, than the general population, and are ten times more likely to have a parent with a PhD. This trend is slightly enhanced for female collaboration members. Despite this, the fraction of first generation college students (FGCS) is significant (31%). This fraction increased among collaboration members who are racial or ethnic minorities (40-50%), and decreased among women (15-25%). SDSS-IV implemented many inclusive policies and established a dedicated committee, the Committee on INclusiveness in SDSS (COINS). More than 60% of the collaboration agree that the collaboration is inclusive; however, collaboration leadership more strongly agree with this than the general membership. In this paper, we explain these results in full, including the history of inclusive efforts in SDSS-IV. We conclude with a list of suggested recommendations based on our findings, which can be used to improve equity and inclusion in large astronomical collaborations, which we argue is not only moral, but will also optimize their scientific output.Comment: 30 pages, 9 figures, accepted in PAS

    The Eighth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Data from SDSS-III

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    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in August 2008, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Ly alpha forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around ~8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes five-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg^2 in the Southern Galactic Cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg^2, or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent photometric recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Evolution (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameters pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high metallicity stars.Comment: Astrophysical Journal Supplements, in press (minor updates from submitted version

    The Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

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    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) presents the first spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This ninth data release (DR9) of the SDSS project includes 535,995 new galaxy spectra (median z=0.52), 102,100 new quasar spectra (median z=2.32), and 90,897 new stellar spectra, along with the data presented in previous data releases. These spectra were obtained with the new BOSS spectrograph and were taken between 2009 December and 2011 July. In addition, the stellar parameters pipeline, which determines radial velocities, surface temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities of stars, has been updated and refined with improvements in temperature estimates for stars with T_eff<5000 K and in metallicity estimates for stars with [Fe/H]>-0.5. DR9 includes new stellar parameters for all stars presented in DR8, including stars from SDSS-I and II, as well as those observed as part of the SDSS-III Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-2 (SEGUE-2). The astrometry error introduced in the DR8 imaging catalogs has been corrected in the DR9 data products. The next data release for SDSS-III will be in Summer 2013, which will present the first data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) along with another year of data from BOSS, followed by the final SDSS-III data release in December 2014.Comment: 9 figures; 2 tables. Submitted to ApJS. DR9 is available at http://www.sdss3.org/dr

    The Fourteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and from the second phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

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    The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since July 2014. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the fourteenth from SDSS overall (making this, Data Release Fourteen or DR14). This release makes public data taken by SDSS-IV in its first two years of operation (July 2014-2016). Like all previous SDSS releases, DR14 is cumulative, including the most recent reductions and calibrations of all data taken by SDSS since the first phase began operations in 2000. New in DR14 is the first public release of data from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS); the first data from the second phase of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), including stellar parameter estimates from an innovative data driven machine learning algorithm known as "The Cannon"; and almost twice as many data cubes from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey as were in the previous release (N = 2812 in total). This paper describes the location and format of the publicly available data from SDSS-IV surveys. We provide references to the important technical papers describing how these data have been taken (both targeting and observation details) and processed for scientific use. The SDSS website (www.sdss.org) has been updated for this release, and provides links to data downloads, as well as tutorials and examples of data use. SDSS-IV is planning to continue to collect astronomical data until 2020, and will be followed by SDSS-V.Comment: SDSS-IV collaboration alphabetical author data release paper. DR14 happened on 31st July 2017. 19 pages, 5 figures. Accepted by ApJS on 28th Nov 2017 (this is the "post-print" and "post-proofs" version; minor corrections only from v1, and most of errors found in proofs corrected
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