618 research outputs found

    Carrying the healer’s baton

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    The story of a relatively brief interaction I had with a ward patient that taught me how little effort it can sometimes take to completely change a patient's experience of their hospital admission

    LATGALES MOTĪVS PĒCKARA GADU CENZŪRĀ UN LITERATŪRĀ

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    Latgales motīvi latviešu literatūrā ir klātesoši kopš 19. gadsimta. Tie akcentē citādo dzīvesveidu, atšķirīgos cilvēkus un kultūras pieredzi. Latgales savdabību no iekšēja skatupunkta tēlo Latgales autori gan latgaliski, gan latviski tapušajā daiļliteratūrā līdz 1944. gadam. 20. gadsimta 30.–40. gados latviešu un latgaliešu literatūrā Latgales tēls ir kolorīts un daudzveidīgs, īpaši izcelta novada vēsturiskā attīstība un tradīciju savdabība. Pēc Otrā pasaules kara latviešu (padomju) literatūrā Latgale ir gan klātesoša, gan izstumta. Latgales savdabību, valodu, tradīciju un vēsturi publiskajā informatīvajā telpā pēckara gados neitralizē Latgales autoru grāmatu, literatūras par Latgali un tās vēsturi izņemšana no publiskajām bibliotēkām. Cenzūras dokumenti fiksē atsevišķus gadījumus, kad aizliegumam pakļauti Latgales autoru darbi vai izteikumi par Latgali. Vēsturiskajos apcerējumos latgaliskās tēmas sastītas ar pagātni (akcentējot sociāli pazemota cilvēka statusu, ekonomisko atpalicību) un tās pārvarēšanu jaunajā padomju iekārtā. Lai arī pēckara gados latgaliski tiek izdotas atsevišķas avīzes, kalendārs, taču tie paliek latviešu lasītāju uzmanības perifērijā un lielākoties ir informatīvi, un jaunu tēlu veidošanos tie nesekmē. Latgales motīvi latviešu literatūrā galvenokārt saglabājas jau iepriekš izveidotos poētiskajos stereotipos, kas visbiežāk tiek izmantoti rituāli augstajos žanros, reprezentējot Latgali līdztekus Vidzemei un Kurzemei. Prozā īpaša uzmanība tiek pievērsta katoliskajai tradīcijai, katoļu baznīcu un ticību pakļaujot antireliģiskās propagandas uzbrukumiem. Savdabīgi, ka Latgale un latgaliskais, tostarp valoda, saglabājas prozas perifērijā (epizodiski personāži, atsevišķas situācijas), īpaši daiļdarbos, kas telpiski paliek ar Latgali nesaistīti. Latgaliskajā identitātē pēckara gadu latviešu literatūrā tiek izcelti atsevišķi jau iepriekš literatūrā izmantoti elementi, slāpējot to daudzveidību un savdabību

    Energy and entropy flows in living systems

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    The main purpose of this research is to strengthen and exploit the link between engineering thermodynamics and both experimental and theoretical biology. Historically, biothermodynamics studies have often resulted in misrepresentation of thermodynamic quantities and in discrepancies between experimental results and restrictions imposed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Analyses performed in this research reevaluate experimental results and measured physiological parameters which are then translated into proper thermodynamic quantities and definitions;This approach begins with the development of comprehensive forms of material and energy balances for open, periodically supplied, growing systems operating far from equilibrium. The re-definition of efficiency and efficacy and the classification of physical work forms is shown to be conducive to the re-interpretation of apparently anomalous experimental results;Generalized material and energy balances are successfully implemented in the analysis of energy flows of growth and development in avian egg and microbial culture systems. The direct relationship between oxygen consumption and heat loss of the egg and microbe systems facilitates the understanding of changing energy flows, energy storage, and energy conversion efficiencies during periods of growth and development;The physiological interpretation of the thermodynamic terms of the energy balance leads to the evolvement of an entropy account which facilitates the rigorous calculation of the entropy production rate and minimal system entropy of living systems. The minimal entropy production rate is determined by comparing heat loss and metabolic energy conversion rates. The calculated rate of specific system entropy production is positive but decreasing during periods of growth and development. The estimated minimal system entropy is increasingly positive during this period. The results of these estimations agree with Prigogine\u27s hypothesis;Additional analyses in muscle physiology result in a cyclic representation of muscle contraction both at microscopic and macroscopic system levels. These representations are used as a guide to the design of muscle experiments and muscle-testing apparatus. Oxygen uptake requirements of muscle are written as a state function dependent upon muscle length, muscle tension, and the work performed. This model produces direct physiological interpretation of nonequilibrium phenomenological expressions for muscle contraction

    Phenomenology of Online Education the Other’s Look (J.-P. Sartre) and Intersubjective Perceptual Phantasy (E. Husserl)

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    This article applies classical phenomenological notions for new modes of communication, namely, online learning. It is stated that empirical communication of online learning presupposes a multilayered transcendental intersubjective structure which might be fruitfully approached via phenomenological projects of affection by the Other’s look and perceptual imagination. While a number of phenomenologists have contributed to the thesis of the article, Husserl and Sartre are of special importance for the author. Hence, part of this article focuses on theoretical analysis of some more (the Other’s look in Being and Nothingness) and less (intersubjective perceptual phantasy in Husserliana XXIII) known phenomenological concepts, while the other presents an attempt of actual phenomenology of online education and the unpredictable nature of the internet

    On the “Idol of the Mind”: Edmund Husserl and Paul Valéry

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    Testing of resveratrol microemulsion photostability and protective effect against UV induced oxidative stress

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    Resveratrol is well known for its antioxidant activity and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation. Development of formulations providing improved stability and relevant drug delivery of resveratrol is still a challenging task. The aim of this study was to determine protective characteristics of formulated microemulsions by evaluating photoisomerization of resveratrol and to investigate the effects of resveratrol on human keratinocyte cells under oxidative stress caused by ultraviolet radiation. Incorporation of resveratrol into microemulsions resulted in increased photostability of active compounds and the results demonstrated that photodegradation of resveratrol was significantly delayed. Results of biopharmaceutical evaluation in vitro demonstrated that up to 60 % of resveratrol was released from microemulsions within 6 hours under a constant release rate profile. In vivo biological testing confirmed the ability of resveratrol to protect cells from oxidative stress and to increase cell viability. It was concluded that microemulsions might be considered in the development of UV light sensitive compounds

    Release of rosmarinic acid from semisolid formulations, and its penetration through the human skin ex vivo

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    The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of rosmarinic acid (RA) from the experimental topical formulations with the Melissa officinalis L. extract and to evaluate its penetration through undamaged human skin ex vivo. The results of the in vitro release study showed that higher amounts of RA were released from the emulsion vehicle when lemon balm extract was added in its dry form. An inverse correlation was detected between the released amount of RA and the consistency index of the formulation. Different penetration of RA into the skin may be influenced by the characteristics of the vehicle as well as by the form of the extract. The results of penetration assessment showed that the intensity of RA penetration was influenced by its lipophilic properties: RA was accumulating in the epidermis, while the dermis served as a barrier, impeding its deeper penetration

    E. HUSSERLIO FENOMENOLOGINIS PROJEKTAS IRPSICHOTERAPIJOS PROBLEMOS

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    Nors fenomenologinė filosofija jau kurį laiką daro įtaką psichoterapeutų darbo metodams, galima teigti, kad pastarieji naudojasi egzistencialistinėmis fenomenologijos traktuotėmis, o štai pirminis, dar Edmundo Husserlio inicijuotas projektas išleidžiamas iš akių. Straipsnyje kaip tik ir užsibrėžiama grįžti prie pastarojo fenomenologijos supratimo, nagrinėjant metodologines psichologijos problemas bei nužymint galimas psichoterapijos perspektyvas. Pirmoje dalyje aptariamos metodologinės ir tipologinės psichoterapijos problemos. Teigiama, kad empirinė psichoterapija neteikia galimybių iš esmės užčiuopti ego struktūros – tikrosios žmogiškojo patyrimo ir atitinkamai psichinių konfliktų erdvės. Sykiu pateikiama fenomenologinė žinojimo traktuotė, psichologinio bet transcendentalinio ego perskyra bei kitos pamatinės, psichoterapijos uždavinius reformuluojančios fenomenologijos temos. Antroje dalyje kaip viena iš galimų fenomenologijos ir psichologijos koreliacijos perspektyvų pateikiama kritinė lyginamoji Sigmundo Freudo sąmonės ir pasąmonės bei „atitinkama“ Husserlio impresinės (produktyvios) ir reproduktyvios sąmonės teorijų analizė, nepamirštant, kad Freudo psichoanalizės jokiu būdu negalima tapatinti su psichoterapija apskritai. Parodoma, kad Husserlio žodynas leidžia naujai konstruktyviai perskaityti Freudo pastabas apie instinktyvaus skatulio teorijos dėsningumus bei represavimo mechanizmą. Trečioje dalyje glaustai suformuluojamos bendros fenomenologinės hermeneutikos rekomendacijos psichoterapeutams. Straipsnyje jokiu būdu neteigiama, kad fenomenologija gali ar turi pakeisti psichoterapiją, tačiau numatoma, kad kaip ir kiekviena teorinė-praktinė disciplina, psichoterapija gali ir turi atrasti fenomenologiją kaip savo atspirties ir plėtotės tašką.Pagrindiniai žodžiai: fenomenologija, psichoterapija, psichologinis ir transcendentalinis ego, instinktyvus skatulys, psichiniai sutrikimai, reproduktyvi sąmonė.E. Husserl’s Phenomenological Project and the Problems Concerning PsychotherapyMindaugas Briedis SummaryThough phenomenological philosophy has influenced practitioners of psychotherapy for a long time, it is also true, that it was precisely existentialist approach to phenomenology that was exploited, while the whole initial project of phenomenology initiated by E. Husserl was almost forgotten. In this article I beckon to re-enter this initial understanding of phenomenology, considering methodological problems of psychology and laying down possible perspectives for psychotherapy.First part of the article deals with the methodological problems of psychotherapy while raising the thesis that empirical psychotherapy in principle cannot grasp the ego-structure, misses the true depth of the human experience, which in turn is the real sphere of mental disorders. Hand in hand goes the phenomenological critique of the scientific approach and other phenomenological issues relevant to the reformulation of the goals of psychotherapy.Second part of the article is dedicated to the one of many possible perspectives stemming from the correlation between phenomenology and psychotherapy, i.e. critical comparison of S. Freud’s consciousness and unconsciousness and “corresponding” theory of impressional (productive) and reproductive consciousness presented by Husserl. It is indicated that Husserl’s approach enables new and constructive reading of Freud’s theory of instinctual drive while keeping in mind, that Freud’s psychoanalysis cannot be identified with psychotherapy in general. However, the final part of the article suggests some methodological advices for mental care practice from the perspective of phenomenological hermeneutics.Keywords: phenomenology, psychotherapy, psychological and transcendental ego, instinctive drive, mental disorders, reproductive consciousness
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