1,161 research outputs found

    Changes in income poverty and deprivation over time : a comparison of eight European countries from the mid-eighties to the mid-nineties with special attention to the situation of the unemployed ; this paper was also published as working paper 3 of EPUSE (the employment precarity, unemployment and social exclusion project), Oxford, october 1998

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    All-over in Europe, unemployment became a growing problem from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s. Nevertheless, the effects on the economical situation of the unemployed and the whole population are quite different in European countries. In this paper we first give a brief overview over the development of unemployment rates in eight member states of the European Union and over the different reactions to provide the social protection of the unemployed. Therefore we look at the social security expenditures, the level of income replacement for the unemployed and recent social policy reforms concerning them. In the second section of the paper, we examine the development of income distribution and poverty taking different poverty lines into consideration. There is no general pattern neither for the relationship of inequality among the unemployed to the whole economically active population nor for the development from the 80s to the 90s. But one can say that in countries with increasing income inequality also poverty is rising (especially in the UK) and that where inequality among the unemployed is less pronounced the proportions of the poor went down from the mid 80s to the mid 90s (France and Ireland). In nearly all countries the risk of being poor is ernormously high for the unemployed, Denmark is the only exception

    Equity in the Utilisation of Health Care in Ireland

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    This paper analyses the extent of equity of health service delivery across the income distribution in Ireland – that is the extent to which there is equal treatment for equal need irrespective of income. We find that almost all services, apart from dental and optician services, are used more by those at the lower end of the income distribution, but that this group also have the greatest need for health care. The comparison of health need to health care delivery across the income distribution without standardising for confounding factors suggests that those in higher income groups receive more health care for a given health status indicating inequity. However, need for health care is highest among the elderly and this group also tend to be at the bottom of the income distribution. Once we standardise for age, sex and location we find that hospital services are distributed equitably across the income distribution, whereas GP and prescription services tend to be pro-poor (used more by those with lower incomes for a given health status) and dental and optician services tend to be pro-rich (used more by those with higher incomes for a given health status).

    Disability and Labour Force Participation in Ireland

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    The extent and nature of participation in the labour market by persons affected by disability has a multitude of direct and indirect effects on their living standards and quality of life, and so is a critical area for investigation and policy concern. This paper seeks to quantify the effects of disability on labour force participation in Ireland for the first time. Using data from the Living in Ireland Survey, 2000 and the Quarterly National Household Survey Disability Module 2002, we look at the relationship between participation and self-reported disability. The results show that those individuals reporting a severely limiting condition have a much lower probability of participation in the labour force than others, and this continues to be the case having controlled for other characteristics such as age, education and marital status. The reporting of such conditions itself may not be exogenous, however, and this is a priority for further research.

    GINI DP 19: The EU 2020 poverty target

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    As part of its 2020 Strategy adopted in 2010, the EU has set a number of headline targets including one for poverty reduction over the next decade. This is a major development in the role accorded to social inclusion in the EU, and thus very important at the level of principle. However, the specific way the target itself has been framed, and the implications for approaches to implementing it, also merit careful consideration. The population identified in framing the target is persons in the member states either below a country-specific relative income poverty threshold, above a material deprivation threshold, or in a “jobless” household. This paper presents an in-depth analysis and critique of the way that target is formulated on both conceptual and empirical grounds and documents the consequence for our understanding of both cross-national and socio-economic patterning of poverty. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternative approaches to combining low income and material deprivation to identify those most in need from a poverty reduction perspective.

    Evaluating the Impact of a National Minimum Wage: Evidence from a New Survey of Firms

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    In April 2000 the Irish government introduced a national minimum wage of ÂŁ4.40 an hour. This paper uses data from a specially designed panel survey of firms to estimate the labour market effects of this change. Initial results show that employment growth among firms with low wage workers prior to the legislation was not significantly different to that for firms not affected by the legislation. However, this measure of the minimum wage bite is likely to overestimate the number of firms affected by the legislation. When we use a more refined measure of the minimum wage bite, which takes account of general wage growth in the economy we find the minimum wage may have had a statistically significantly negative effect on employment for the small number of firms most severely affected by the legislation.

    WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO REPLACEMENT RATES? ESRI Working Paper No. 76, May 1996

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    Financial incentives to take up and stay in work, and the impact of the tax and social welfare systems on these incentives, have become a major preoccupation of Irish policy-makers. Recent Budgets have highlighted measures to "reward work" through income tax and PRSI relief for the low paid, and one aim of the expert working group set up to advise on the integration of the tax and social welfare systems is to point towards ways of improving work incentives. Empirical studies of work incentives generally measure the financial incentive facing individuals in the form of replacement rates, the ratio of income when unemployed to income when in work.1 In calculating replacement rates, choices about precisely what is to be included in the numerator or the denominator have to be made and can matter. More fundamentally, though, different approaches to deriving replacement rates, relying on different types of data, can be distinguished and may not tell the same story about the situation at a particular point in time or changes over time. This paper sets out the alternative approaches which have been used to measure Irish replacement rates, compares the pattern they show for these rates over time, and assesses the implications for our picture of how work incentives have evolved and for measurement practice

    The EU 2020 Poverty Target

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    As part of its 2020 Strategy adopted in 2010, the EU has set a number of headline targets including one for poverty reduction over the next decade. This is a major development in the role accorded to social inclusion in the EU, and thus very important at the level of principle. However, the specific way the target itself has been framed, and the implications for approaches to implementing it, also merit careful consideration. The population identified in framing the target is persons in the member states either below a country-specific relative income poverty threshold, above a material deprivation threshold, or in a “jobless” household. This paper presents an in-depth analysis and critique of the way that target is formulated on both conceptual and empirical grounds and documents the consequence for our understanding of both cross-national and socio-economic patterning of poverty. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternative approaches to combining low income and material deprivation to identify those most in need from a poverty reduction perspective.
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