562 research outputs found

    Low cost silicon solar array project. Task 1: Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low cost, high volume production of silane, SiH4

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    The kinetics of the redistribution of dichlorosilane and trichlorosilane vapor over a tertiary amine ion exchange resin catalyst were investigated. The hydrogenation of SiCl4 to form HSiCl3 and the direct synthesis of H2SiCl2 from HCl gas and metallurgical silicon metal were also studied. The purification of SiH4 using activated carbon adsorbent was studied along with a process for storing SiH4 absorbed on carbon. The latter makes possible a higher volumetric efficiency than compressed gas storage. A mini-plant designed to produce ten pounds per day of SiH4 is described

    Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Feasibility of Low-cost, High-volume Production of Silane and Pyrolysis of Silane to Semiconductor-grade Silicon

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    The presence of copper promotes a more rapid approach to the steady stete operating condition and results in a more consistent reactor effluent composition. The average kinetic and equilibrium yield are unchanged. Incoloy has been identified as the preferred choice of material of construction for the hydrogenation reactor although certain metallurgical changes were noted in samples exposed to the H2/HCl atmosphere at 500 C which indicate the need for more testing

    Low cost silicon solar array project silicon materials task: Establishment of the feasibility of a process capable of low-cost, high volume production of silane (step 1) and the pyrolysis of silane to semiconductor-grade silicon (step 2)

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    A quartz fluid bed reactor capable of operating at temperatures of up to 1000 C was designed, constructed, and successfully operated. During a 30 minute experiment, silane was decomposed within the reactor with no pyrolysis occurring on the reactor wall or on the gas injection system. A hammer mill/roller-crusher system appeared to be the most practical method for producing seed material from bulk silicon. No measurable impurities were detected in the silicon powder produced by the free space reactor, using the cathode layer emission spectroscopic technique. Impurity concentration followed by emission spectroscopic examination of the residue indicated a total impurity level of 2 micrograms/gram. A pellet cast from this powder had an electrical resistivity of 35 to 45 ohm-cm and P-type conductivity

    STEREO and Wind Observations of Intense Cyclotron Harmonic Waves at the Earth's Bow Shock and Inside the Magnetosheath

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    We present the first observations of electron cyclotron harmonic waves at the Earth's bow shock from STEREO and Wind burst waveform captures. These waves are observed at magnetic field gradients at a variety of shock geometries ranging from quasi-parallel to nearly perpendicular along with whistler mode waves, ion acoustic waves, and electrostatic solitary waves. Large amplitude cyclotron harmonic waveforms are also observed in the magnetosheath in association with magnetic field gradients convected past the bow shock. Amplitudes of the cyclotron harmonic waves range from a few tens to more than 500 millivolts/meter peak-peak. A comparison between the short (15 meters) and long (100 meters) Wind spin plane antennas shows a similar response at low harmonics and a stronger response on the short antenna at higher harmonics. This indicates that wavelengths are not significantly larger than 100 meters, consistent with the electron cyclotron radius. Waveforms are broadband and polarizations are distinctively comma-shaped with significant power both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Harmonics tend to be more prominent in the perpendicular directions. These observations indicate that the waves consist of a combination of perpendicular Bernstein waves and field-aligned waves without harmonics. A likely source is the electron cyclotron drift instability which is a coupling between Bernstein and ion acoustic waves. These waves are the most common type of high-frequency wave seen by STEREO during bow shock crossings and magnetosheath traversals and our observations suggest that they are an important component of the high-frequency turbulent spectrum in these regions

    Effect of Cristobalite on the Strength of Sintered Fused Silica Above and Below the Cristobalite Transformation

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/111203/1/jace13505.pd

    Kinetics of Cristobalite Formation in Sintered Silica

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/107495/1/jace12889.pd

    Study of EMIC wave excitation using direct ion measurements

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    With data from Van Allen Probes, we investigate electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave excitation using simultaneously observed ion distributions. Strong He band waves occurred while the spacecraft was moving through an enhanced density region. We extract from helium, oxygen, proton, and electron mass spectrometer measurement the velocity distributions of warm heavy ions as well as anisotropic energetic protons that drive wave growth through the ion cyclotron instability. Fitting the measured ion fluxes to multiple sinm-type distribution functions, we find that the observed ions make up about 15% of the total ions, but about 85% of them are still missing. By making legitimate estimates of the unseen cold (below ∼2 eV) ion composition from cutoff frequencies suggested by the observed wave spectrum, a series of linear instability analyses and hybrid simulations are carried out. The simulated waves generally vary as predicted by linear theory. They are more sensitive to the cold O+ concentration than the cold He+ concentration. Increasing the cold O+ concentration weakens the He band waves but enhances the O band waves. Finally, the exact cold ion composition is suggested to be in a range when the simulated wave spectrum best matches the observed one
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