564 research outputs found

### Entanglement area law from specific heat capacity

We study the scaling of entanglement in low-energy states of quantum
many-body models on lattices of arbitrary dimensions. We allow for unbounded
Hamiltonians such that systems with bosonic degrees of freedom are included. We
show that if at low enough temperatures the specific heat capacity of the model
decays exponentially with inverse temperature, the entanglement in every
low-energy state satisfies an area law (with a logarithmic correction). This
behaviour of the heat capacity is typically observed in gapped systems.
Assuming merely that the low-temperature specific heat decays polynomially with
temperature, we find a subvolume scaling of entanglement. Our results give
experimentally verifiable conditions for area laws, show that they are a
generic property of low-energy states of matter, and, to the best of our
knowledge, constitute the first proof of an area law for unbounded Hamiltonians
beyond those that are integrable.Comment: v3 now featuring bosonic system

### One-shot rates for entanglement manipulation under non-entangling maps

We obtain expressions for the optimal rates of one- shot entanglement
manipulation under operations which generate a negligible amount of
entanglement. As the optimal rates for entanglement distillation and dilution
in this paradigm, we obtain the max- and min-relative entropies of
entanglement, the two logarithmic robustnesses of entanglement, and smoothed
versions thereof. This gives a new operational meaning to these entanglement
measures. Moreover, by considering the limit of many identical copies of the
shared entangled state, we partially recover the recently found reversibility
of entanglement manipu- lation under the class of operations which
asymptotically do not generate entanglement.Comment: 7 pages; no figure

### Exponential Quantum Speed-ups are Generic

A central problem in quantum computation is to understand which quantum
circuits are useful for exponential speed-ups over classical computation. We
address this question in the setting of query complexity and show that for
almost any sufficiently long quantum circuit one can construct a black-box
problem which is solved by the circuit with a constant number of quantum
queries, but which requires exponentially many classical queries, even if the
classical machine has the ability to postselect.
We prove the result in two steps. In the first, we show that almost any
element of an approximate unitary 3-design is useful to solve a certain
black-box problem efficiently. The problem is based on a recent oracle
construction of Aaronson and gives an exponential separation between quantum
and classical bounded-error with postselection query complexities.
In the second step, which may be of independent interest, we prove that
linear-sized random quantum circuits give an approximate unitary 3-design. The
key ingredient in the proof is a technique from quantum many-body theory to
lower bound the spectral gap of local quantum Hamiltonians.Comment: 24 pages. v2 minor correction

### Equivalence of Statistical Mechanical Ensembles for Non-Critical Quantum Systems

We consider the problem of whether the canonical and microcanonical ensembles
are locally equivalent for short-ranged quantum Hamiltonians of $N$ spins
arranged on a $d$-dimensional lattices. For any temperature for which the
system has a finite correlation length, we prove that the canonical and
microcanonical state are approximately equal on regions containing up to
$O(N^{1/(d+1)})$ spins. The proof rests on a variant of the Berry--Esseen
theorem for quantum lattice systems and ideas from quantum information theory

### Finite correlation length implies efficient preparation of quantum thermal states

Preparing quantum thermal states on a quantum computer is in general a
difficult task. We provide a procedure to prepare a thermal state on a quantum
computer with a logarithmic depth circuit of local quantum channels assuming
that the thermal state correlations satisfy the following two properties: (i)
the correlations between two regions are exponentially decaying in the distance
between the regions, and (ii) the thermal state is an approximate Markov state
for shielded regions. We require both properties to hold for the thermal state
of the Hamiltonian on any induced subgraph of the original lattice. Assumption
(ii) is satisfied for all commuting Gibbs states, while assumption (i) is
satisfied for every model above a critical temperature. Both assumptions are
satisfied in one spatial dimension. Moreover, both assumptions are expected to
hold above the thermal phase transition for models without any topological
order at finite temperature. As a building block, we show that exponential
decay of correlation (for thermal states of Hamiltonians on all induced
subgraph) is sufficient to efficiently estimate the expectation value of a
local observable. Our proof uses quantum belief propagation, a recent
strengthening of strong sub-additivity, and naturally breaks down for states
with topological order.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figure

### Estimating operator norms using covering nets

We present several polynomial- and quasipolynomial-time approximation schemes
for a large class of generalized operator norms. Special cases include the
$2\rightarrow q$ norm of matrices for $q>2$, the support function of the set of
separable quantum states, finding the least noisy output of
entanglement-breaking quantum channels, and approximating the injective tensor
norm for a map between two Banach spaces whose factorization norm through
$\ell_1^n$ is bounded.
These reproduce and in some cases improve upon the performance of previous
algorithms by Brand\~ao-Christandl-Yard and followup work, which were based on
the Sum-of-Squares hierarchy and whose analysis used techniques from quantum
information such as the monogamy principle of entanglement. Our algorithms, by
contrast, are based on brute force enumeration over carefully chosen covering
nets. These have the advantage of using less memory, having much simpler proofs
and giving new geometric insights into the problem. Net-based algorithms for
similar problems were also presented by Shi-Wu and Barak-Kelner-Steurer, but in
each case with a run-time that is exponential in the rank of some matrix. We
achieve polynomial or quasipolynomial runtimes by using the much smaller nets
that exist in $\ell_1$ spaces. This principle has been used in learning theory,
where it is known as Maurey's empirical method.Comment: 24 page

### Quantum de Finetti Theorems under Local Measurements with Applications

Quantum de Finetti theorems are a useful tool in the study of correlations in
quantum multipartite states. In this paper we prove two new quantum de Finetti
theorems, both showing that under tests formed by local measurements one can
get a much improved error dependence on the dimension of the subsystems. We
also obtain similar results for non-signaling probability distributions. We
give the following applications of the results:
We prove the optimality of the Chen-Drucker protocol for 3-SAT, under the
exponential time hypothesis.
We show that the maximum winning probability of free games can be estimated
in polynomial time by linear programming. We also show that 3-SAT with m
variables can be reduced to obtaining a constant error approximation of the
maximum winning probability under entangled strategies of O(m^{1/2})-player
one-round non-local games, in which the players communicate O(m^{1/2}) bits all
together.
We show that the optimization of certain polynomials over the hypersphere can
be performed in quasipolynomial time in the number of variables n by
considering O(log(n)) rounds of the Sum-of-Squares (Parrilo/Lasserre) hierarchy
of semidefinite programs. As an application to entanglement theory, we find a
quasipolynomial-time algorithm for deciding multipartite separability.
We consider a result due to Aaronson -- showing that given an unknown n qubit
state one can perform tomography that works well for most observables by
measuring only O(n) independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) copies of
the state -- and relax the assumption of having i.i.d copies of the state to
merely the ability to select subsystems at random from a quantum multipartite
state.
The proofs of the new quantum de Finetti theorems are based on information
theory, in particular on the chain rule of mutual information.Comment: 39 pages, no figure. v2: changes to references and other minor
improvements. v3: added some explanations, mostly about Theorem 1 and
Conjecture 5. STOC version. v4, v5. small improvements and fixe

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