265 research outputs found

### Simple Asymmetric Exclusion Model and Lattice Paths: Bijections and Involutions

We study the combinatorics of the change of basis of three representations of the stationary state algebra of the two parameter simple asymmetric exclusion process. Each of the representations considered correspond to a different set of weighted lattice paths which, when summed over, give the stationary state probability distribution. We show that all three sets of paths are combinatorially related via sequences of bijections and sign reversing involutions.Comment: 28 page

### Bi-orthogonal Polynomials and the Five parameter Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process

We apply the bi-moment determinant method to compute a representation of the matrix product algebra -- a quadratic algebra satisfied by the operators $\mathbf{d}$ and $\mathbf{e}$ -- for the five parameter ($\alpha$, $\beta$, $\gamma$, $\delta$ and $q$) Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process. This method requires an $LDU$ decomposition of the bi-moment matrix''. The decomposition defines a new pair of basis vectors sets, the boundary basis'. This basis is defined by the action of polynomials $\{P_n\}$ and $\{Q_n\}$ on the quantum oscillator basis (and its dual). Theses polynomials are orthogonal to themselves (ie.\ each satisfy a three term recurrence relation) and are orthogonal to each other (with respect to the same linear functional defining the stationary state). Hence termed bi-orthogonal'. With respect to the boundary basis the bi-moment matrix is diagonal and the representation of the operator $\mathbf{d}+\mathbf{e}$ is tri-diagonal. This tri-diagonal matrix defines another set of orthogonal polynomials very closely related to the the Askey-Wilson polynomials (they have the same moments)

### Chebyshev type lattice path weight polynomials by a constant term method

We prove a constant term theorem which is useful for finding weight polynomials for Ballot/Motzkin paths in a strip with a fixed number of arbitrary decorated' weights as well as an arbitrary background' weight. Our CT theorem, like Viennot's lattice path theorem from which it is derived primarily by a change of variable lemma, is expressed in terms of orthogonal polynomials which in our applications of interest often turn out to be non-classical. Hence we also present an efficient method for finding explicit closed form polynomial expressions for these non-classical orthogonal polynomials. Our method for finding the closed form polynomial expressions relies on simple combinatorial manipulations of Viennot's diagrammatic representation for orthogonal polynomials. In the course of the paper we also provide a new proof of Viennot's original orthogonal polynomial lattice path theorem. The new proof is of interest because it uses diagonalization of the transfer matrix, but gets around difficulties that have arisen in past attempts to use this approach. In particular we show how to sum over a set of implicitly defined zeros of a given orthogonal polynomial, either by using properties of residues or by using partial fractions. We conclude by applying the method to two lattice path problems important in the study of polymer physics as models of steric stabilization and sensitized flocculation.Comment: 27 pages, 14 figure

### A Combinatorial Interpretation of the Free Fermion Condition of the Six-Vertex Model

The free fermion condition of the six-vertex model provides a 5 parameter sub-manifold on which the Bethe Ansatz equations for the wavenumbers that enter into the eigenfunctions of the transfer matrices of the model decouple, hence allowing explicit solutions. Such conditions arose originally in early field-theoretic S-matrix approaches. Here we provide a combinatorial explanation for the condition in terms of a generalised Gessel-Viennot involution. By doing so we extend the use of the Gessel-Viennot theorem, originally devised for non-intersecting walks only, to a special weighted type of \emph{intersecting} walk, and hence express the partition function of $N$ such walks starting and finishing at fixed endpoints in terms of the single walk partition functions

### One-transit paths and steady-state of a non-equilibrium process in a discrete-time update

We have shown that the partition function of the Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process with open boundaries in a sublattice-parallel updating scheme is equal to that of a two-dimensional one-transit walk model defined on a diagonally rotated square lattice. It has been also shown that the physical quantities defined in these systems are related through a similarity transformation.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figure

### Exact Solution of the Discrete (1+1)-dimensional RSOS Model in a Slit with Field and Wall Interactions

We present the solution of a linear Restricted Solid--on--Solid (RSOS) model confined to a slit. We include a field-like energy, which equivalently weights the area under the interface, and also include independent interaction terms with both walls. This model can also be mapped to a lattice polymer model of Motzkin paths in a slit interacting with both walls and including an osmotic pressure. This work generalises previous work on the RSOS model in the half-plane which has a solution that was shown recently to exhibit a novel mathematical structure involving basic hypergeometric functions ${}_3\phi_2$. Because of the mathematical relationship between half-plane and slit this work hence effectively explores the underlying $q$-orthogonal polynomial structure to that solution. It also generalises two other recent works: one on Dyck paths weighted with an osmotic pressure in a slit and another concerning Motzkin paths without an osmotic pressure term in a slit

### Nonequilibrium stationary states and equilibrium models with long range interactions

It was recently suggested by Blythe and Evans that a properly defined steady state normalisation factor can be seen as a partition function of a fictitious statistical ensemble in which the transition rates of the stochastic process play the role of fugacities. In analogy with the Lee-Yang description of phase transition of equilibrium systems, they studied the zeroes in the complex plane of the normalisation factor in order to find phase transitions in nonequilibrium steady states. We show that like for equilibrium systems, the densities'' associated to the rates are non-decreasing functions of the rates and therefore one can obtain the location and nature of phase transitions directly from the analytical properties of the densities''. We illustrate this phenomenon for the asymmetric exclusion process. We actually show that its normalisation factor coincides with an equilibrium partition function of a walk model in which the densities'' have a simple physical interpretation.Comment: LaTeX, 23 pages, 3 EPS figure

### A simple model of a vesicle drop in a confined geometry

We present the exact solution of a two-dimensional directed walk model of a drop, or half vesicle, confined between two walls, and attached to one wall. This model is also a generalisation of a polymer model of steric stabilisation recently investigated. We explore the competition between a sticky potential on the two walls and the effect of a pressure-like term in the system. We show that a negative pressure ensures the drop/polymer is unaffected by confinement when the walls are a macroscopic distance apart

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